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IM606 Knowledge Management

Phase 1

Objectives
Course Objective:

• Understanding of processes
• Understanding of knowledge management

Student Learning Outcome: • Students will be able to demonstrate proper techniques to improve organizational processes.
– Assessment: SWOT analysis

Objective continued…
Lesson Objectives: 1. Describe how to leverage technologies 2. Describe the role of knowledge servers 3. Identify the components of the KM platform

4. Describe strategic planning
5. Apply SWOT analysis

Lets Review

Knowledge Management
a useful definition

The systematic process of creating, maintaining and nurturing an organization to make the best use of knowledge to create business value and generate competitive advantage.

Asset-Centric

Shift

Knowledge-Centric

The Value Proposition Managing the intangible asset - Knowledge

Drivers of Knowledge Management
0 Knowledge Centric 0 Technology 0 Structural 0 Process 0 Economics

A Learning Organization
• Demands self-directed learning from their employees • Promotes mentoring, coaching, facilitating, role-modeling • Widens the concept of performance support to focus on outputs, not inputs

What Makes a Company Successful?

The RIGHT people applying the RIGHT knowledge at the RIGHT time!

The Knowledge Management Process

Database Capture Tools

Sharing

Communication Networks

Acquisition

Utilization

Collaborate Tools

Knowledge Workers
0 Dominant group of workers in the 21st

century. 0 Specialists with job-specific skills. 0 Have significant formal education or formal training. 0 Are self-directed learners. 0 Require multiple, continuous learning opportunities to maintain their specialized knowledge.

Describe the Generations in the Workplace

Motivation
0A willingness to exert effort toward

achieving a goal 0Stimulated by the effort’s ability to fulfill an individual need 0Employee motivation is crucial to organizational success

Knowledge Technology (The
hardware, software and the hype.)

• Knowledge repositories • Fuzzy Logic • Neural systems • Data-mining tools • Contact software • Intranets • Extranets • Water Cooler Technology

Phase I Infrastructure Evaluation

1 Analyze the Existing Infrastructure 2 Align KM & Business Strategy 3 Design the KM Infrastructure

Phase II KM System analysis, Design & development

4 Audit Existing K Assets & Systems
5 Design the KM Team

6
7

Create the KM Blueprint
Develop the KM System

Phase III Deployment

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9 10

Deploy, Using the Results –driven Incremental Methodology
Manage change, culture & rewards

Phase IV Evaluation

Evaluate, ROI & refine the KMS

Knowledge Management

Chapter 5

Phase I Infrastructure Evaluation
Step 1 - Analyze the Existing Infrastructure a) Explain how to leverage technologies b) Explain how a KM server will interface with existing infrastructure

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THE APPROACH: LEVERAGE-LEVERAGE-LEVERAGE Role of Technology: • Store • Communicate

Approach: Leveraging---Think about…
• • • • • • • • • • Machine to mind Collaborate synergy Real knowledge Conversation Sources & originators Decision support Flexibility & scalability Pragmatism User is king Ease of user

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Leveraging the Internet
Leverage the Internet for Global Reach
Implications: – Cost-effective global network backbone – Ubiquity (ever-present) – Distributed connectivity – Robust global data paths – Open & global competitive intelligence

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The Internet is Platform Independent

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The Knowledge Platform
Key driver of an effective KM system is the proper leverage & tight integration of existing technology, tools & information resources

Key components of a KM platform

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Phase I Infrastructure Evaluation
Step 1 - Analyze the Existing Infrastructure a) Explain how to leverage technologies b) Explain how a KM server will interface with existing infrastructure

Knowledge Servers

Basis for Integration Across Multiple Enterprises

Knowledge Server Example

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The Knowledge Server
Business Needs & Knowledge Server: • Adaptability • Automated tracking • Structure of information • Content utilization

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Enabling Technologies for the KM Technology Framework

Meta-Components

Meta-Components of the KM technology Framework
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Knowledge flow Information mapping Information sources Information & knowledge exchange Intelligent agent and networking mining

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Key components of a KM platform

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The Knowledge Platform

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• Begin with existing network infrastructures • Integrate, build on & leverage enterprise resources • Understand the KM technological framework • Build the system around people • Use knowledge servers • Plan for flexibility & scalability

Lessons Learned – Step 1
• There is no one way of managing knowledge • Understand the role of existing networks • Integrate, build upon & leverage enterprise resources • Look before you leap • Focus on what works • Build around people • Go beyond intranet • Use knowledge servers • Plan for flexibility & scalability

Phase 1: Infrastructure Evaluation
• Step 1- Analysis of existing infrastructure
– Before you can adequately implement a KM system, you need an understanding of the technology framework that already exists. – Identify critical gaps – Don’t abandon “old” existing investments

Knowledge Management

Chapter 6

Phase I Infrastructure Evaluation
Step 2 - Aligning Knowledge Management and Business Strategy
a) b) c) d) Describe strategic planning Perform SWOT analysis Create a Knowledge Map Align company’s knowledge & business strategy

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mLJ34L5UW4E&feature=relmfu

VIDEO: WHAT IS STRATEGIC PLANNING REALLY?

Strategic Visioning
Questions: 1. What is the industry context in which your business operates? 2. What is the level and nature of turbulence with it? 3. How profound is the uncertainty in your business?

Strategic Planning Process
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Start with Mission/Vision Where are you as a company? (SWOT) Where do you want to be? (Knowledge Map) Create the path (Balanced Scorecard) Implement (Action Plan)

Strategic Vision

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This is what the company aspires to be.
Mission Statement of AT&T Mission is the organization’s purpose. It identifies the organizations products and customers and distinguishes it from the competition.
We are dedicated to being the world’s best at bringing people together-giving them easy access to each other and to the information and services they want & need-anywhere, anytime

Application…
• Read the case study and write down their KM drivers, value proposition and KM strategy

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Core Values

Core Purpose

Organization Strategy

Goals to fulfill mission

Mission & Vision

Knowledge Transfer versus Integration
Knowledge Transfer • Shift knowledge from one person to another for the purpose of learning Knowledge Integration • Synthesizing the tacit knowledge of different individuals to create a group-level knowledge.

Knowledge Transfer versus Integration

Real Options under Uncertainty
• Level 1- predictable outcomes, use of SWOT • Level 2 – likely outcomes, ensure that most desirable discrete outcomes are achieved • Level 3 – range of possible outcomes but unpredictable, experimentation takes place • Level 4 – unpredictable outcomes, shaping of the market is attempted

Levels of Uncertainty

Speed & Variety of Responses Quadrants
• Quadrant 1- high variety low speed, structural flexibility & knowledge transfer • Quadrant 2 - high variety high speed, strategic flexibility & cross-functional integration • Quadrant 3 – low variety high speed, operational flexibility & inter-functional integration • Quadrant 4 – low variety low speed, stability & functional sharing

Speed & Variety of Responses Quadrants

Business Model
is an articulated plan for adding economic value by applying knowledge to a set of resources to create a marketable product or service offering

Business Models & Executability

Codification or Personalization
Codification • Focused on technology that enables storage, indexing, retrieval & reuse. • Suited to companies that repeatedly deal with similar problems & decisions.

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Personalization • Focused on connecting knowledge workers through networks • Suited to companies that face “one-off” problems that depend more on tacit knowledge & expertise than on codified knowledge

Strategic Planning Videos Strategic Planning process http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sU3FLxnDv_ A&feature=channel&list=UL Strategic management pitfalls http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nKXXcrTTZU 0&feature=channel&list=UL

Phase I Infrastructure Evaluation
Step 2 - Aligning Knowledge Management and Business Strategy
a) b) c) d) Describe strategic planning Perform SWOT analysis Create a Knowledge Map Align company’s knowledge & business strategy

Strategic Planning Process 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Start with Mission/Vision Where are you as a company (SWOT) Where do you want to be? (Knowledge Map) Create the path (Balanced Scorecard) Implement (Action Plan)

S.W.O.T
• • • • Strengths Weakness Opportunities Threats

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This is a planning exercise to analyze the current situation and develop strategies to accomplish the organization’s mission

Video
• SWOT analysis and Strategic Planning
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GNXYI10Po6A&feature=relmfu

SWOT Questions
Potential Strengths
Strong product lines? Leadership? Brand recognition? Organization structure? Ability to manage change? Employees? Knowledge managed?

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Potential Opportunities
Expand core business? New markets? Diversification? Foreign markets? Market growth? Innovation? Research & development? Knowledge? Human resources?

Potential Weaknesses
Poor strategy? Product line? Manufacturing cost? Loss of customers? Human resources? Vision lost? Organization controls? Conflicts?

Potential Threats
Attack on core competencies? Increased competition? Change in customer taste? New or substitute products available? Rising labor cost? Slow market growth? Decrease in profits?

Assignment:
• Explore their website (write down their mission/vision and values) • Complete a SWOT analysis

IM606 Knowledge Management

Phase 2

Objectives
Course Objective:

• Understanding of processes
• Understanding of knowledge management

Student Learning Outcome: • Students will be able to demonstrate proper techniques to improve organizational processes.
– Assessment: Knowledge Map

Objective continued…
Lesson Objectives: 1. Apply SWOT analysis 2. Explain a knowledge map 3. Describe how to align knowledge and business strategy

4. List critical success factors

Knowledge Management
a useful definition

The systematic process of creating, maintaining and nurturing an organization to make the best use of knowledge to create business value and generate competitive advantage.

Asset-Centric

Shift

Knowledge-Centric

The Value Proposition Managing the intangible asset - Knowledge

Drivers of Knowledge Management
0 Knowledge Centric 0 Technology 0 Structural 0 Process 0 Economics

The Knowledge Management Process

Database Capture Tools

Sharing

Communication Networks

Acquisition

Utilization

Collaborate Tools

Phase I Infrastructure Evaluation

1 Analyze the Existing Infrastructure 2 Align KM & Business Strategy 3 Design the KM Infrastructure

Phase II KM System analysis, Design & development

4 Audit Existing K Assets & Systems
5 Design the KM Team

6
7

Create the KM Blueprint
Develop the KM System

Phase III Deployment

8
9 10

Deploy, Using the Results –driven Incremental Methodology
Manage change, culture & rewards

Phase IV Evaluation

Evaluate, ROI & refine the KMS

Phase I Infrastructure Evaluation
Step 1 - Analyze the Existing Infrastructure a) Explain how to leverage technologies b) Explain how a KM server will interface with existing infrastructure

Key components of a KM platform

Knowledge Server Example

Strategic Vision
This is what the company aspires to be.
Mission Statement of AT&T Mission is the organization’s purpose. It identifies the organizations products and customers and distinguishes it from the competition.
We are dedicated to being the world’s best at bringing people together-giving them easy access to each other and to the information and services they want & need-anywhere, anytime

S.W.O.T
• • • • Strengths Weakness Opportunities Threats

1

This is a planning exercise to analyze the current situation and develop strategies to accomplish the organization’s mission

Phase I Infrastructure Evaluation
Step 2 - Aligning Knowledge Management and Business Strategy
a) b) c) d) Describe strategic planning Perform SWOT analysis Create a Knowledge Map Align company’s knowledge & business strategy

Strategic Knowledge Gap

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Knowledge Classifications
1. Core Knowledge 2. Advanced Knowledge 3. Innovative Knowledge

2

Strategic Planning Process
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

2

Start with Mission/Vision Where are you as a company (SWOT) Where do you want to be? (Knowledge Map) Create the path (Balanced Scorecard) Implement (Action Plan)

Knowledge Map

2

Phase I Infrastructure Evaluation
Step 2 - Aligning Knowledge Management and Business Strategy
a) b) c) d) Describe strategic planning Perform SWOT analysis Create a Knowledge Map Align company’s knowledge & business strategy

Strategic Alignment

3

3

Detecting Lost Opportunities Organizations must appropriately leverage knowledge

3

Align Knowledge & Business Strategy

3

3

Process of articulating the link between business & knowledge strategies

24 lessons: Critical Success Factors

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1. There is no silver bullet 2. Successful KM projects begin with working definition of knowledge 3. Requires a process focus 4. There are no perfect measures, but they are needed 5. Need to demonstrate short time impact 6. Count tacit knowledge. Codification with personalization.

24 lessons: Critical Success Factors

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7. Shared knowledge requires a shared context 8. Begin with existing knowledge, deliver initial results & continue to expand 9. Accommodate for reasoning & assumptions 10.Keep an eye on the future 11.Minimize the route of information – reduce noise 12.Give incentives to share knowledge

24 lessons: Critical Success Factors
13. Allow everyone to access & contribute 14. Allow confidentiality 15. Allow access anytime, anywhere 16. Update automatically 17. Make it easy to navigate 18. Use other databases in addition to others

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Leading Companies… • Integrate the sharing with business strategy • Build a culture that supports learning • Build eagerness & awareness of the value of creating, sharing and using knowledge • Develop and maintain human networks • Share knowledge and best practices

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24 lessons: Critical Success Factors
19. Provide management support 20. Use technology when cant meet F2F 21. Support informal knowledge sharing 22. Less is more. Package the knowledge 23. Provide logical business extensions 24. determine the delivery of knowledge

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To make content useful include… • • • • • Identification Segmenting Mass customization Format Tests

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KM Focus Questions
1. How can we turn knowledge into something that adds value to the market in which we operate? 2. What do we know or thing we know about different aspects of our customers? Are we doing something about what we know of them? 3. How can we generate meaningful knowledge, rather than simply flooding our organization with indiscriminate information? 4. How can we create a knowledge-supportive organizational culture in which everybody is convinced of the contribution that knowledge can make to the success of the company?

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KM Focus Questions
5. Can we cut costs, reduce time to market, improve customer service, or increase margins by more effectively sharing knowledge & leveraging what we already know? Could such knowledge be applied to the activities of other divisions of our company, in other locations, and in foreign manufacturing sites? How can we ever transfer them & then make them work? Are there any fundamental errors in what we think we know as a company? What will be the consequences of these errors? How can these be proactively fixed? How can we manage our people, who will increasingly become knowledge workers or professionals, motivating them to generated knowledge and share it with their peers? Which of these people actually play critical roles in developing & testing new knowledge & information that gets used here?

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6. 7.

8.

KM Focus Questions
9.

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Are exciting ideas emerging within the company but failing to be commercialized? If these ideas are not reaching the market, what incentives, structures, or management processes seem to be clocking them? How can valuable knowledge that exists within the company be actually applied & benefited from? 10. Maybe our company has more money than ideas. Are these opportunities to form partnerships with companies that may be more in flow of innovative ideas & knowledge? Given different cultures, how can this ever work? 11. Is the “not invented here” syndrome so strong that we are missing attractive business opportunities? Could knowledge-based collaboration increase our value? 12. How does tacit knowledge –skills, intuitive abilities, employee experience – affect the generation & transfer of explicit form of knowledge in our company?

Lessons learned – Step 2
• An effective KM system begins with vision • Shift from strategic programming to strategic planning • Use knowledge instead of data to make decisions • Use knowledge-based SWOT analysis • Create knowledge maps • Codification or personalization (don’t choose one) • Balance exploitation and exploration • Articulate a clear strategy-KM link

Strategic Planning Process 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Start with Mission/Vision Where are you as a company (SWOT) Where do you want to be? (Knowledge Map) Create the path (Balanced Scorecard) Implement (Action Plan)

Balanced Scorecard

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Maintain a balance between long-term and short-term objectives, financial and non financial measures, lagging and leading indicators and between internal and external perspectives.

Balanced Scorecard

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KM Balanced Scorecard

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Modified Balanced Scorecard

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Videos

3

• Strategy and scorecard • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AdXt8BfiGJ g&list=LP1qJbSmjOtuI&index=5&feature=plcp • Balanced scorecard by Norton • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oNy8kupW8 oI

For each BSC measure…
Objective Measure Target Initiative

Metric Keys
• Metrics define KM success • Use the Balance Scorecard • Do not ignore soft metrics • Use metric wisely

Knowledge Map

2

• Illustration of knowledge and its relationship to business processes and strategy. Steps • Acquire knowledge • Analysis (strategic) • Visualize

Example

Example

Example

Example

Example

Think about…
• • • • • • • Workforce (training, skills, knowledge) IT structure (KM system and networks) Culture, leadership, alignment & teamwork Internal and External Drivers Strategic Competencies Strategic Technologies Climate for action

For your Project …
• The team is starting to figure out the team recommendations by performing a SWOT, examining the business strategy and creating a Knowledge Map using the Balanced Scorecard.

Hints:
1. Use the SWOT to answer the first question in the case study – think about the problem the organization is trying to solve through knowledge management 2. When creating the Knowledge Map, answer question #3 3. Your initiatives in the Knowledge Map can become part of the Action Plan

Phase 1: Infrastructure Evaluation
• Step 1- Analysis of existing infrastructure
– Before you can adequately implement a KM system, you need an understanding of the technology framework that already exists. – Identify critical gaps – Don’t abandon “old” existing investments

• Step 2- Align knowledge management & business strategy
– Strategy is at a high level and systems are at a low level – Connect the two levels

Questions