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ME 307 Machine Design I

Dr. A. Aziz Bazoune


Mechanical Engineering Department

King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

Dr. A. Aziz Bazoune

Chapter 7: Fatigue Failure Resulting from variable Loading

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ME 307 Machine Design I

7-1 Introduction to Fatigue in Metals 306 7-2 Approach to Fatigue Failure in Analysis and Design 312 7-3 Fatigue-Life Methods 313 7-4 The Stress-Life Method 313 7-5 The Strain-Life Method 316 7-6 The Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method 319 7-7 The Endurance Limit 323 7-8 Fatigue Strength 325 7-9 Endurance Limit Modifying Factors 328 7-10 Stress Concentration and Notch Sensitivity 335 7-11 Characterizing Fluctuating Stresses 344 7-12 Fatigue Failure Criteria for Fluctuating Stress 346 7-13 Torsional Fatigue Strength under Fluctuating Stresses 360 7-14 Combinations of Loading Modes 361 7-15 Varying, Fluctuating Stresses; Cumulative Fatigue Damage 364 7-16 Surface Fatigue Strength 370 7-17 Stochastic Analysis 373
Dr. A. Aziz Bazoune Chapter 7: Fatigue Failure Resulting from variable Loading CH-7 LEC 20 Slide2

ME 307 Machine Design I

7-1 7-2 7-3 7-3

Introduction to Fatigue in Metals Approach to Fatigue Failure in Analysis and Design Fatigue-Life Methods The Stress-Life Method

Dr. A. Aziz Bazoune

Chapter 7: Fatigue Failure Resulting from variable Loading

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ME 307 Machine Design I

Dr. A. Aziz Bazoune

Chapter 7: Fatigue Failure Resulting from variable Loading

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ME 307 Machine Design I

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Crack Initiation
Fatigue always begins at a crack Crack may start at a microscopic inclusion (<.010 in.) Crack may start at a "notch", or other stress concentration

Crack Propagation
Sharp crack creates a stress concentration Each tensile stress cycle causes the crack to grow (~10-8 to 10-4 in/cycle)

Fracture
Sudden, catastrophic failure with no warning.

Dr. A. Aziz Bazoune

Chapter 7: Fatigue Failure Resulting from variable Loading

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ME 307 Machine Design I

Dr. A. Aziz Bazoune

Chapter 7: Fatigue Failure Resulting from variable Loading

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ME 307 Machine Design I

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ME 307 Machine Design I

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Figure 7-5 Fatigue fracture surface of a forged connecting rod of AISI 8640 steel. The fatigue crack origin is at the left edge, at the flash line of the forging, but no unusual roughness of the flash trim was indicated. The fatigue crack progressed halfway around the oil hole at the left, indicated by the beach marks, before final fast fracture occurred. Note the pronounced shear lip in the final fracture at the right edge. (From ASM Handbook, Vol. 12: Fractography, ASM International, Materials Park, OH 44073-0002, fig 523, p. 332. Reprinted by permission of ASM International , www.asminternational.org.)

Dr. A. Aziz Bazoune

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Figure 7-6 Fatigue fracture surface of a 200mm (8-in) diameter piston rod of an alloy steel steam hammer used for forging. This is an example of a fatigue fracture caused by pure tension where surface stress concentrations are absent and a crack may initiate anywhere in the cross section. In this instance, the initial crack formed at a forging flake slightly below center, grew outward symmetrically, and ultimately produced a brittle fracture without warning. (From ASM Handbook, Vol.12: Fractography, ASM International, Materials Park, OH44073-0002, fig 570, p. 342. Reprinted by permission of ASM International, www.asminternational.org.)
Dr. A. Aziz Bazoune Chapter 7: Fatigue Failure Resulting from variable Loading

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Figure 7-6 Fatigue failure of an ASTM A186 steel double-flange trailer wheel caused by stamp marks. (b) Stamp mark showing heavy impression and fracture extending along the base of the lower row of numbers. (From ASM Handbook, Vol.11: Failure Analysis and Prevention, ASM International, Materials Park, OH 44073-0002, fig 51, p. 130. Reprinted by permission of ASM International , www.asminternational.org.)

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Figure 7-8 Aluminum alloy 7075-T73 landinggear torque-arm assembly redesign to eliminate fatigue fracture at a lubrication hole. (a) Arm configuration, original and improved design (dimensions given in inches). (From ASM Handbook, Vol. 11: Failure Analysis and Prevention, ASM International, Materials Park, wall OH 44073-0002, fig 23, p. 114. Reprinted By permission of ASM International, www.asminternational.org.)

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Figure 7-8 Aluminum alloy 7075-T73 landinggear torque-arm assembly redesign to eliminate fatigue fracture at a lubrication hole. (b) Fracture surface where arrows indicate multiple crack origins. (From ASM Handbook, Vol. 11: Failure Analysis and Prevention, ASM International, Materials Park, wall OH 44073-0002, fig 23, p. 114. Reprinted By permission of ASM International, www.asminternational.org.)

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Thus far weve studied STATIC FAILURE of machine elements. The second major class of component failure is due to DYNAMIC LOADING
Repeated stresses Alternating stresses Fluctuating stresses

The ultimate strength of a material (Su) is the maximum stress a material can sustain before failure assuming the load is applied only once and held. Fatigue strength Resistance of a material to failure under cyclic loading. A material can also FAIL by being loaded repeatedly to a stress level that is LESS than (Su)
Fatigue failure

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Fatigue-Life Methods Fatigue Strength and the Endurance Limit Endurance Limit Modifying Factors Stress Concentration and Notch Sensitivity

Fluctuating Stresses
Combinations of Loading Modes Varying, Fluctuating Stresses; Cumulative Fatigue Damage

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Three major fatigue life methods used in design and analysis for safe life estimation:
1. 2. 3. Stress life method (S-N Curves) Strain life method (-N Curve) Linear elastic fracture mechanics method

The above methods predict the life in number of cycles to failure, N, for a specific level of loading. :

1.
2.

Low cycle Fatigue: 1


High cycle fatigue

N 103 cycles N 103 cycles


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Dr. A. Aziz Bazoune

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ME 307 Machine Design I

1. Stress-Life Method
based on stress levels only It is the least accurate approach, especially for low-cycle applications. Most traditional method: easiest to implement for a wide range of design applications

ample supporting data


represents high-cycle applications adequately

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2. Strain-Life Method
Involves more detailed analysis of the plastic deformation at localized regions where the stresses and strains are considered for life estimates. Good for low-cycle fatigue applications. Some uncertainties exist in the results.

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3.

Fracture Mechanics Method


Assumes a crack is already present and detected.
Predicts crack growth with respect to stress intensity. Most practical when applied to large structures in conjunction with computer codes and a periodic inspection program.

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To determine the strength of materials under the action of fatigue loads, specimens are subjected to repeated or varying forces of specified magnitudes while the cycles or stress reversals are counted to destruction. The most widely used fatigue-testing device is the R. R. Moore high-speed rotating-beam machine. The specimen, shown in Fig.6-9, is very carefully machined and polished, with a final polishing in an axial Direction to avoid circumferential scratches.

Figure 7-9
Test-specimen geometry for the R. R. Moore rotatingbeam machine. The bending moment is uniform over the curved at the highest-stressed portion, a valid test of material, whereas a fracture elsewhere (not at the higheststress level) is grounds for suspicion of material flaw.

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R. R. Moore rotating-beam fatigue testing machine

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R. R. Moore rotating-beam fatigue testing machine

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There are essentially two types of fatigue: 1. High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) (Elastic Strain) 2. Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) (Plastic Strain)

Semi-Log Scale

The fatigue strength Sf is the stress level that a material can endure for N cycles. The stress level at which that material can withstand an infinite number of cycles is called the endurance limit.
Endurance Limit (Se): Maximum stress that a material will endure without failure for an infinite number of load cycles.

The endurance limit is observed as a horizontal line on the S-N curve.

Dr. A. Aziz Bazoune

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S-N Curves for Non-Ferrous Metals (Al-Alloys)

Note that nonferrous materials often exhibit no endurance limit.

Eventually these materials will fail due to repeated loading.

To come up with an equivalent endurance limit, designers typically use the value of the fatigue strength Sf at 108 cycles
Figure 7-11
S-N bands for representative aluminum alloys, excluding wrought alloys with Sut< 38 kpsi.
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S-N Curves for Polymers


Note that non-ferrous materials often exhibit no endurance limit.

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