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Name – A r dh en du Mishra

Meanin g
A multi-core processor is an integrated circuit to which two or more processors have been attached for enhanced performance, reduced power consumption, and more efficient simultaneous processing of multiple tasks. A dual core set-up is somewhat comparable to having multiple, separate processors installed in the same computer, but because the two processors are actually plugged into the same socket, the connection between them is faster. Ideally, a dual core processor is nearly twice as powerful as a single core processor. In practice, performance gains are said to be about fifty percent: a dual core processor is likely to be about one-and-a-half times as powerful as a

• A multi-core CPU (or chip-level multiprocessor, CMP) combines two or more independent cores into a single package composed of a single integrated circuit (IC), called a die, or more dies packaged together. • A multi-core microprocessor implements multiprocessing in a single physical package. Multicore architecture has a single processor package that contains two or more processor "execution cores," or computational engines, and delivers— with appropriate software—fully parallel execution of multiple software threads.

• Cores in a multi-core device may share a single coherent cache at the highest on-device cache level (e.g. L2 for the Intel Core 2) or may have separate caches (e.g. current AMD dual-core processors). The processors also share the same interconnect to the rest of the system. • The operating system (OS) perceives each of its execution cores as a discrete processor, with all the associated execution resources. • Each "core" independently implements optimizations such as superscalar execution, pipelining, and multithreading

•A dual-core processor contains two cores and a quadcore processor contains four cores. Dual-core processors are the first step in the transition to multicore computing. •Intel is already conducting research on architectures that could hold dozens or even hundreds of processors on a single die •By enabling energy-efficient performance and moreefficient simultaneous processing of multiple tasks, multi-core processors promise to improve user experiences in both home and business environments. Multi-Core is the future of computing

Functional units Superscalar is known territory. Diminishing returns for adding more functional blocks. Single-threaded architectural performance is pegged Data paths Increasing bandwidth between functional units in a core makes a difference. Such as comprehensive 64-bit design.

Pipeline Deeper pipeline buys frequency at expense of increased cache miss penalty and lower instructions per clock. Shallow pipeline gives better instructions per clock at the expense of frequency scaling. Max. frequency per core requires deeper pipelines Cache Cache size buys performance at expense of die size. Deep pipeline cache miss penalties are reduced by larger caches.

•Increased computing Capabilities •Higher Performance •The digital home & Business •Quality software development

•Adjustments to the existing software •Thermal management

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