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1st Law of Thermodynamics Heat Transfer

Lecture 1 August 25,2011

Energy
Energy is the ability or capacity to do work on some form of matter Work is done on matter when matter is either pushed, pulled, or lifted over some distance Potential energy how much work that an object is capable of doing PE = mgh Kinetic energy the energy an object possesses as a result of its motion KE = mv2

Laws of Thermodynamics
1st Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Energy lost during one process must equal the energy gained during another

2nd Law of Thermodynamics Heat can spontaneously flow from a hotter object to a cooler object, but not the other way around. The amount of heat lost by the warm object is equivalent to the heat gained by the cooler object

First Law of Thermodynamics


Conservation of energy:

q = e + w
The amount of heat (q) added to a system is equal to the change in internal energy (e) of the system plus any work (w) done by the system

Heat
Heat is a form of energy and is the total internal energy of a substance Therefore the 1st law states that heat is really energy in the process of being transferred from a high temperature object to a lower temperature object. Heat transfer changes the internal energy of both systems involved Heat can be transferred by:
Conduction Convection Advection Radiation

Specific Heat
Heat capacity of a substance is the ratio of heat absorbed (or released) by that substance to the corresponding temperature rise (or fall) The heat capacity of a substance per unit mass is called specific heat. Can be thought of a measure of the heat energy needed to heat 1 g of an object by 1C Different objects have different specific heat values

Substance Liquid Water Ice Wood Sand Air

Value (J g1K1) 4.183 2.050 0.420 0.835 1.012

1 g of water must absorb about 4 times as much heat as the same quantity of air to raise its temperature by 1 C This is why the water temperature of a lake or ocean stays fairly constant during the day, while the temperature air might change more Because of this, water has a strong effect on weather and climate

Latent Heat
Latent heat is the amount of energy released or absorbed by a substance during a phase change
FOR WATER: Lowest energy SOLID
334 J/g 334 J/g released 2260 J/g released

LIQUID
2260 J/g

GAS

SOLID

absorbed

LIQUID LIQUID

absorbed

GAS

Highest energy

Example 1: Getting out of a swimming pool In the summer, upon exiting a swimming pool you feel cool. Why?
Drops of liquid water are still on your skin after getting out. These drops evaporate into water vapor. This liquid to gas phase change causes energy to be absorbed from your skin.

Example 2: Citrus farmers An orange crop is destroyed if temperatures drop below freezing for a few hours. To prevent this, farmers spray water on the orange trees. Why?
When the temperature drops below 32oF, liquid water freezes into ice. This liquid to solid phase change causes energy to be released to the fruit. Thus, the temperature of the orange remains warm enough to prevent ruin.

Example 3: Cumulus clouds Clouds form when water vapor condenses into tiny liquid water drops. This gas to liquid phase change causes energy to be released to the atmosphere.
The release of latent heat during cloud formation drives many atmospheric processes.

Types of Heat Transfer


Heat can be transferred by: Conduction Convection Advection Radiation

Conduction
Conduction is the transfer of heat from molecule to molecule within a substance Molecules must be in direct contact with each other
If you put one end of a metal rod over a fire, that end will absorb the energy from the flame. Molecules at this end of the road will gain energy and begin to vibrate faster As they do, their temperature increases and they begin to bump into the molecules next to them. The heat is being transferred from the warmer end to the colder end, and eventually to your finger.

Conduction
The measure of how well a substance can conduct heat depends on its molecular structure.
Substance Still air at 20 C Water at 20 C Heat Conductivity 0.023 0.60

Ice
Granite Iron

2.1
2.7 80

Air does not conduct heat very well This is why, in calm weather, the hot ground only warms the air near the surface a few centimeters thick by conduction!

Convection
Convection is the transfer of heat by the mass movement of a fluid (such as water and air) in the vertical direction (up and down) Convection occurs naturally in the atmosphere On a sunny day, the Earths surface is heated by radiation from the Sun. The warmed air expands and becomes less dense than the surrounding cold air. Because the warmed air is less dense (weighs less) than cold air, the heated air rises.

Convection
As the warm air rises, the heavier cold air flows toward the surface to replace the rising air. This cooler air becomes heated in turn and rises. The cycle is repeated. This vertical exchange of heat is called convection and the rising air parcels are known as thermals

The warm thermals cool as they rise. In fact, the cooling rate as a parcel rises can be calculated
If the thermal consists of dry air, it cools at a rate of ~10C/km as it rises. This is called the lapse rate.

Convection

Convection is one process by which clouds can form. As the temperature of the thermal cools, it may reach a point where it reaches saturation (the temp. and dewpoint are the close to the same) Thermals condense and form a cloud.

Advection is the transfer of heat in the horizontal direction. The wind transfers heat by advection Happens frequently on Earth Two types:
Warm air advection (WAA): wind blows warm air toward a region of colder air Cold air advection (CAA): wind blows cold air toward a region of warmer air

Advection

Cold Air Advection

Warm Air Advection

Radiation
All things with a temperature above absolute zero emit radiation Radiation allows heat to be transferred through wave energy These waves are called electromagnetic waves The wavelengths of the radiation emitted by an object depends on the temperature of that object (i.e., the sun mainly emits radiative energy in the visible spectrum, and the earth emits radiative energy in the infrared spectrum). Shorter wavelengths carry more energy than longer wavelengths

A photon of ultra-violet radiation carries more energy than a photon of infrared radiation. The shortest wavelengths in the visible spectrum are purple, and the longest wavelengths are red.

Radiation
Emitted radiation can be:

Absorbed Increasing the internal energy of the gas molecules. Reflected Radiation is not absorbed or emitted from an object but it reaches the object and is reflected back. The Albedo represents the reflectivity of an object and describes the percentage of light that is sent back. Scattered Scattered light is deflected in all directions, forward, backward, sideways. It is also called diffused light. Transmitted Radiation not absorbed, reflected, or scattered by a gas. The radiation passes through the gas unchanged.

Examples of Heat Transfer


http://www.wisconline.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=SCE3 04

Kirchoffs Law
Good absorbers of a particular wavelength are good emitters at that wavelength and vice versa Our atmosphere has many selective absorbers Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, etc These gases are good at absorbing IR radiation but not solar radiation Thus these gases are called greenhouse gases due to the fact they help to absorb and reemit IR radiation back toward the Earths surface thus keeping us warmer then we would otherwise be

Solar Radiation Budget

Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance