Chapter 4-Periodic Table

I. Developing the Periodic Table A. Johann Dobereiner 1. Grouped elements in triads 2. Used similar properties 3. Middle element mass was average of other two

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B. John Newlands 1. arranged in order of atomic mass 2. properties repeated every eighth element (Law of Octaves) 3. had 7 groups C. Dmitri Mendeleev-”Father of Periodic Table” 1. arranged in order of atomic mass 2. allowed periods to be any length so properties were similar in columns 3. left blank spaces for undiscovered elements & predicted their properties
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discovered noble gases/ added group 18 to periodic table 3 .D. The Periodic Law-properties of elements are a periodic function of their atomic #s. William Ramsay 1. 3. used x-rays to show # of protons in nucleus 2. rearranged elements in order of atomic number E. Henry Moseley 1.

F. vertical columns = groups or families similar properties due to same outer electron configuration (#valence electrons) 4 . took Lanthanides & Actinides out of main body of Periodic Table G. Glenn Seaborg 1. horizontal rows = periods or series properties are periodic-change in a repeating pattern period # is outer energy level 2. Today’s Periodic Table 1.

high BP & MP 5 .II. solids at room temp. malleable & ductile 2. Metals-react by losing electrons (located left of stair-step line) 1. Structure: Atoms in linear layers causes shiny luster/silver color. Regions of Elements A. high density. Structure: Atoms closely packed causes good conductivity.

low density. brittle 2. Structure: Atoms spaced apart causes poor conductivity.B. Nonmetals-react by gaining electrons (located right of stair-step line) 1. many states at room temp. Structure: Atoms at angles causes dull luster. low BP & MP 6 .

Ge. Sb. Si. Metalloids = B. Te (located on stair-step line) are all semi-conductors (conduct better when warmed) D. As.C. Noble Gases = Group 18 do not react under normal conditions 7 .

Families of Elements A. react quickly with oxygen -get a dull coating -must be stored in oil 3.III. react strongly with water to form hydrogen gas & alkaline (basic) solutions 4. have 1 valence electron (end in s1) react by losing 1 electron 8 . Soft-can be cut with a knife 2. Alkali Metals – Group 1 (does not include H) 1.

have 2 valence electron (end in s2) react by losing 2 electrons 9 . react slowly with oxygen -get a dull coating 4. Alkaline Earth Metals – Group 2 1. found in minerals & rocks in Earth’s crust 2. form precipitates (solid in a solution) 3. react slowly with water to form hydrogen gas & alkaline solutions 5.B.

form strong acids 3. Halogens – Group 1 7 1. have 7 valence electrons (end in s2p5) react by gaining or sharing 1 electron 10 . React with metals to form salts 2.C.

have 8 valence electrons (end in s2p6-except He = s2) *Octet = full s & p sublevels this is most stable arrangement of electrons other elements gain or lose electrons when they react to get an octet 11 . not normally reactive 2. Noble Gases = Group 18 1.D.

lose 1 electron like Group 1 b. all acids contain Hydrogen (H1+) 12 . gain 1 electron like Group 17 c. reacts with most other elements 2. Hydrogen-considered its own group 1. has only 1 electron (electron configuration = 1s1) 3. can react 3 different ways: a.E. share 1 electron like Group 17 4.

electrons may “jump” between d & s or p clouds to make atom more stable (full or half-full sublevels) so patterns may have exceptions & can lose different #s of electrons 13 . electron configurations end in “d” sublevels 3. form colored compounds 2. Transition Metals = Groups 3-12 1.F.

Lanthanides = Elements #57-70 are super-conductors 2. Actinides = Elements #89-102 are radioactive 14 . Inner Transition Elements or Rare Earth Elements electron configurations end in “f” sublevel 1.G.

IV. Periodic Properties (Periodicity) =properties that change in a pattern or cycle 15 .

Electronegativity lower at bottom (ability to attract electrons) -nonmetals at bottom less reactive 16 .A. Resultsa. Reasons for changes -valence electrons farther from nucleus -more shielding from inner electrons 2. Ionization Energy lower at bottom (energy to lose electrons) -metals at bottom more reactive b. Vertical changes 1.

Ionization Energy higher metals at right less reactive b.B. Horizontal changes 1. Reasons for changes -bigger nuclear charge (more +) -different # valence electrons 2. Electronegativity higher nonmetals at right more reactive 17 . Results-changes at right a.

Exceptions to patterns a.3. transition metals can rearrange electrons 18 . Noble Gases -Octet too stable to change b. full or half-full sublevels are harder to change (electrons are going into next sublevel or pairing up -takes more energy) c.

V. Quarks =particles that make up protons & neutrons .can recombine to produce other particles -these leave nucleus at speed of light E = mc2 19 . Radioactivity = breakdown of nucleus to release particles and/or energy A.

Nuclear Particle Symbols protons = neutrons = alpha particles = beta particles = positrons = gamma rays = 20 .

medical imaging.B. Nuclear fission element splits apart into 2 or more particles (decay) or is bombarded and form smaller element Used in: nuclear power plants. cancer treatments Example: Carbon-14 decays to produce Nitrogen-14 and one other particle. 21 . radioactive dating.

hydrogen bomb.C. Nuclear fusion 2 smaller elements join together or element is bombarded to form larger element Used in: sun & stars. 22 . forming synthetic elements Example: Einsteinium-253 is bombarded with alpha particles to form Mendelevium-256 and one other particle.

rocks. etc. 23 . Radioactive Half-Life =time needed for one-half of radioactive material to decay Can be use to calculate age of fossils.D. artifacts.

ages calculated could be incorrect 24 .000 years old *Problem-if carbon amounts have been different in past.1. Carbon-14 dating -compares ratio of C-14/C-12 in fossil to similar objects of known age -can only be used on objects that were once living -cannot be used on objects more than 50.

Potassium-40 dating -compares amount of K-40 with Ar-40 in rocks to calculate starting amount of K-40 *Problem-if Ar-40 was in rock when it formed. ages calculated could be incorrect 25 .2.

Phosphorus-32 has a half-life of 57.Half-Life Problems: 1.0 grams of the isotope at the beginning? 26 .2 years. How many grams remain after 286 years if you have 4.

how much time must pass until only 1. If you start with 16 mg of Polonium-218. The half-life of Polonium-218 is 3 minutes.0 mg are left? 27 .2.

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