This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Presented by: Jobert S. Gargoles
Dr. Carlos C. Sison DEM, PECE
provides various services to the subscribers
collection of switching elements arranged and
controlled in such a way as to setup a communication path between any two distant points.
3 types of Switching
Circuit Switching 2. Message Switching 3. Packet Switching
billing system and other internal components. . switching components and facilities for maintaining equipment. Also referred to as Plain Old Telephone System (POTS).Evaluation Of PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network Consists of transmission component.
Classification of Switching System Switchin g Systems Automatic Manual Electromechanical Electronic .
Functions of Switching System Identity Addressing Finding and Path set-up Busy Testing Supervision Clear Down Billing .
Requirements of Switching System High availability High speed Low down time Good facilities High security .
Limitations of Manual Exchanges • Language dependent • Lack of privacy • Switching delay • Limited service . All the local exchange hardware are duplicated for each subscriber except the ringing generator.Simple Human Exchange the control was provided by a human operator and the elements of the switch assemblies are plugs and jacks (1892). operator’s head set and the battery.
Simple Human Exchange A telephone operator manually connecting calls with cord pairs at a telephone switchboard .
Strowger with his nephew Walters with electromagnets and pawls Reasons For Survival Of This System • High system availability • Comprehensibility • Cheapness and Simplicity . to establish automatic exchanges to improve the speed and carry more leads (subscribers). Created by Almon B.The Strowger Step By Step Switching System developed around 1880–1890 to eliminate the limitations of manual exchanges.
Basic Elements of Strowger Switching System Uniselectors one which has a single rotary switch with a bank of contacts. so a caller can choose to connect to any of 10 different subscribers by dialling any digit from 1 to 10 . each contact is connected to an outgoing channel. In the case single uniselector.
Basic Elements of Strowger Switching System Two motion selectors a selector in which a set of wipers is moved in two different planes by means of separate mechanisms. .
Step by Step Switching basic principle of strowger system is the direct application of the functional subdivision with extensive use of third wire control .
Step by Step Switching Subscriber line circuit (SLC) Every subscriber is connected to his local exchange by one pair of wires. Line Finder & Alloter • As there are many subscribers. but only a few selectors. selector hunter based access or line finder based access can be used . alloter switch is used for connecting calling subscriber and selector line. • To find a free selector. there has to be a method for finding a free selector and to connect the calling subscriber to that free selector. This single pair carries the voice in both directions and the ring current to ring the bell when a call is received.
generally referred as first and second selectors. the group selector may comprise one or two selectros. .Step by Step Switching Group Selector Depends on the subscriber number.
. The dialling of 4 advances the switch to row 4 and then the dialling of 5.Step by Step Switching Final selector • The final selector takes care of the last two digits. Otherwise a busy signal is returned to the caller. The final selector acts as an expander. If the called subscriber line is free. rotates the switch to the 5th column. to connect the heavily loaded trunks to the much larger number of lightly loaded customer lines. then. the path setup is completed. As the last two digit being 4 and 5.
Congestion could arise when the switching system is heavily loaded The capacity of switching system reduces if codes of different numbers are alloted to various subscribers The strowger system can accept only 7 to 9 pulses in 1 second .Drawback of Step by Step Switching skilled technicians are necessary not feasible to select an alternate route for interoffice calls limited to dial pulses If calling rate is high. heavy operation is performed by the system and the life time of the system is less.
Wire logic computer allows specific routine functions of call processing to be handwired into the switch. .Crossbar Exchange Common control allows the customer and the switch to share the common equipments used to process the call. Flexible concentration ratios allows the system designer to select the appropriate ratio for a specific switch based on customer mix in a specific location. Crossbar switches are easier to maintain because the switch have significantly fewer moving parts than strowger switching system.
• common control networks enables the exchange to perform event monitoring. call • also facilitates uniform numbering of subscribers in a multiexchange area Western Electric 100 Point six-wire Type B crossbar switch .Crossbar Exchange Basic principle • The fundamental concept of crossbar switching is that it uses common control networks.
AT & T No. Various options of charging methods such as AMA or message resister and coin. 5 Crossbar System Developed by the Bell Telephone Laboratories suitable for isolated small cities and for residential areas on the fringes of large cities The use of precious metal. non-sliding contacts results in noise free conversations. .
marker pulse conversion etc. code conversion. 5 Crossbar System Provision of toll and tandem switching features with the same common control equipment as is used for local traffic. alternate routing.AT & T No. Improved distribution of usage over various equipment units by means of rotating sequence and memory circuits. Good trouble shooting procedures and additional features like eleven digit capacity. .
5 Crossbar System No. 5 crossbar switching structure .AT & T No.
a programe or a set of instructions are stored in its memory and executed automatically one by one by the processor . automated call tracing message unit accounting (for billing) technical name used for telephone exchanges controlled by a computer program stored in the memory of the system. call forwarding. call waiting. enables easier number changes.SPC Exchange permits the features like abbreviated dialling.
• To carry over the maintenance functions of the switching system. a separate processor is used. . •performs trunk routing to other control or tandem offices. • More than one processors are used for the reliability • Also the SPC system uses distributed software and hardware architectures.SPC Exchange • uses processors designed to meet the various requirements of the exchange. Basic control structure of SPC.
Switching Techniques Message switching The source and destination do not interact in real time Message delivery is on delayed basis if destination node is busy or otherwise unable to accept traffic. the transmission links are never idle. . Destination node status is not required before sending message. In message switching network. Message switching network normally accepts all traffic but provides longer delivery time because of increased queue length.
. Thus. In circuit switching. if the lines are idle. A circuit switching network rejects excess traffic. if the users denied service. the data transfer takes place with negligible propagation time. the line will be idle.Switching Techniques Circuit Switching The source and destination are connected temporarily during data transfer. if all the lines are busy. Destination node status is necessary before setting up a path for data transfer. may be there due to busy destination node. after path setup. Before path setup delay. the transmission capacity will be less. Once the connection is made.
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING! .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.