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AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

The part of the Nervous System that controls the body systems to achieve homeostasis An Overview
Assoc Prof dr Hamiadji Tanuseputro

MAIN FUNCTION

The ASN regulates body temperature, coordinates cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, and reproductive functions. In doing so, adjusting water, electrolytes, nutrient, and gasses automatically. HOMEOSTASIS

PARASYMPATHETIC “Rest and Repose”

SYMPATHETIC “Fight and Flight”

ANATOMY • Contains afferent and efferent fibers • The effectors include: 1. Glandular tissue • The ASN has a TWO Neuron System Paeganglionic (myelinated) >< Upper Motor Neuron Postganglionic (unmyelinated) >< Lower Motor Neuron • Slow conducting >< Fast conducting • Forming Terminal plexuses near the effector organ >< Proximal plexuses . Cardiac muscle 3. Smooth muscle >< Skeletal muscle 2.

Smooth muscle 2. lumbosacral) . Cardiac muscle 3. Glandular tissue • The ASN has a TWO Neuron System Paeganglionic (myelinated) Postganglionic (unmyelinated) The SOMATIC has TWO Neuron System Upper Motor Neuron Lower Motor Neuron • • Slow conducting Forming Terminal plexuses near the effector organ • • Fast conducting Proximal plexuses (brachial.A COMPARISON AUTONOMIC SYSTEM • Contains afferent and efferent fibers • • SOMATIC SYSTEM Contains afferent and efferent fibers The effectors include: Skeletal muscle • • The effectors include: 1.

. GENERAL VISCERAL AFFERENT (GVA) (not shown) 1. GENERAL VISCERAL EFFERENT (GVE) 4.PHYSIOLOGY GENERAL SOMATIC AFFERENT (GSA) 2. GENERAL SOMATIC EFFERENT (GSE) 3.

PHYSIOLOGY • There are TWO END Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine – Parasympathetic (conservation / restoration) Norepinephrine – Sympathetic (expenditure) • Can be Excitatory or Inhibitory >< always Excitatory (Somatic system) • There is no Trophic influence >< there is a trophic effect (Lower Motor Neuron) C N S Sympathetic Acetylcholine Norepinephrine Parasympathetic Acetylcholine Acetylcholine .

blood vessels.MORPHOLOGY Parasympathetic Sympathetic Hypothalamus (Anterior) Cranio-Sacral Ganglia: Hypothalamus (Posterior) Thoraco-Lumbar Ganglia: Cranial nerves Intramural Paravertebral Praevertebral Cholinergic Sympathetic fibers supply: An Exception Sweat glands. arrector pili. . fatty tissue of the skin.

VII. X.MORPHOLOGY Cranial nerves: III. Accompany arteries Plexuses: Cardiac. IX. superior mesenteric Plexuses: Cradiac. pulmonary coeliac. superior mesenteric Hypogastric Hypogastric (inferior mesenteric) . pulmonary. coeliac.

. blood vessels. arrector pili.Cholinergic Sympathetic fibers supply: Sweat glands. fatty tissue of the skin.

but postganglionic neurons.All preganglionic neurons release ACh. produce complex & coordinated responses . epinephrine (adrenal medulla) or ACh (skin) Parasympathetic stimulation: -All parasympathetic neurons are cholinergic (ACh) .The effects are usually brief and restricted to specific organs or sites . norepinephrine. beta receptors) Parasympathetic Acetylcholine Acetylcholine .The effect of stimulation is prolonged & wide Epinephrine C N S Sympathetic Acetylcholine Norepinephrine (alpha.PHYSIOLOGY Sympathetic stimulation: -Shows extensive divergences ….

Cellular basis: 1.STIMULATION OF SYMPATHETIC SYSTEM 1. Euphoria feeling energetic. via stimulation of RAS 2. relax smooth muscles. Alertness.reduce heart rate. Increased CVS and Resp activity --.increased BP. lungs heart. disregard for danger. constriction of GI sphincters. tense even shivering. decrease in pain sensitivity. Release of norepinephrine on specific locations (several seconds) 2. Increased muscle tone --stimulation of extrapyramidal system. Beta receptor – epinephrine – skeletal muscles. liver – indirect by second messenger – enzymes – activation or inhibition 4. Adrenal medulla --. breathing rate and depth. 3. Membrane receptors: Alpha receptor – norepinephrine – influx Ca ion – contraction of smooth muscle BP up.80% epinephrine to general circulation (several minutes) Note Beta blockers --. .

STIMULATION OF PARASYMPATHETIC SYSTEM More localized and specific.coordination of defaecation.sexual arousal and stimulation of sexual glands Nicotinic & Muscarinic = chemicals that stimulate receptors sites. Nicotinic receptors bind nicotine. also at few cholinergic symp neuroeffector junctions – via enzyme (longer duration). . Postganglionic neurons intramural (ACh).secretion of glands (GI) . micturation . Muscarinic are found at cholinergic parasym.reduction of heart rate and force contraction . nicotinic are found on surfaces of para & sympathetic ganglions – excitation via ion channels.contriction of pupils – accomodation . . neuroeffector junction. Cellular basis: Types of ACh receptors.increased smooth muscle activity in GI . Muscarinic receptors bind muscarine from mushrooms.

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lumbosacral) . Smooth muscle 2.A COMPARISON AUTONOMIC SYSTEM Contains afferent and efferent fibers The effectors include: 1. Glandular tissue The ASN has a TWO Neuron System Paeganglionic (myelinated) Postganglionic (unmyelinated) Slow conducting Forming Terminal plexuses near the effector organ SOMATIC SYSTEM Contains afferent and efferent fibers The effectors include: Skeletal muscle The SOMATIC has TWO Neuron System Upper Motor Neuron Lower Motor Neuron Fast conducting Proximal plexuses (brachial. Cardiac muscle 3.

in synapses always Excitatory (Somatic system) There is no Trophic influence There is a Trophic effect (Lower Motor Neuron) .A COMPARISON AUTONOMIC SYSTEM There are TWO END Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine – Parasympathetic (conservation / restoration) Norepinephrine – Sympathetic (expenditure) Can be Excitatory or Inhibitory SOMATIC SYSTEM There is ONE END Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine .

or a balance.Homeostasis • The body is able to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though there is a continuous change in the outside world. • Functions of cells and organs are co-ordinated in order to obtain homeostasis • The co-ordination is mainly accomplished by the nervous and endocrine systems . • Homeostasis indicates a „dynamic‟ state of equilibrium.

Valsalva manoeuvre ( expiration against a closed glottis. bradycardia when released) E:I ratio ( Compare R-R interval during expiration and inspiration.about 2 in young people because heart rate is increased during inspiration) Tilt test for postural hypotension Supine and standing BP ( supine BP is lower in normal people. higher in people with autonomic neuropathy) Postage stamp test for nocturnal erection .

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION HT. SEPTEMBER 2006 .

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION HT. SEPTEMBER 2006 .

THE SYMPATHETIC SYSTEM .

THE PARASYMPATHETIC SYSTEM .