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Presented By

:

Deepali Bhardwaj

Data Management

8/24/2013

IIT 13 - Databases

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8/24/2013 IIT 13 .  Principle of data in context: end users need to see data in a meaningful format and context.Databases 3 .  Principle of 90/90 data use: as high as 90 percent of data is seldom accessed after 90 days.Data Management  Principle of diminishing data value: value of data diminishes as the data ages.

Traditional File Processing Flat Files / ISAM Files • Data Redundancy & Inconsistency • Program-Data Dependence • Lack of Flexibility • Security • Lack of Data Sharing 8/24/2013 IIT 13 .Databases 4 .

thing or event for which information is stored Attribute: Characteristic or quality describing an Entity 8/24/2013 IIT 13 . Place.File Organization Concepts Describes an Entity: Person.Databases 5 .

Databases 6 . integrating. storing. processing. distributing and archiving data effectively throughout their life cycle  Life cycle: The way data travels through an organization from their capture or creation to their use and final disposal 8/24/2013 IIT 13 .Data Management  Data Management: Structured approach for capturing.

 Database is a collection of related data organized in a structured manner 8/24/2013 IIT 13 . distributing and archiving of data in which  independent files are consolidated into a common pool.Databases 7 . called a database.Database Management Approach  An approach to  Storing.  of records available to different application programs and end users for processing and data retrieval. integrating. processing .

Database Management Systems  Allows to centralize data and manage efficiently  Access to stored data through programs  Interface between physical data files and application programs  Separates logical and physical views of data 8/24/2013 IIT 13 .Databases 8 .

Physical Databases And Logical Views 8/24/2013 IIT 13 .Databases 9 .

DBMS Advantage  Reduces redundancy and inconsistency  Uncouples data and programs  Access and availability of information increased  Can perform ad-hoc queries  Development and maintenance costs reduced 8/24/2013 IIT 13 .Databases 10 .

Database Models: Relational DBMS (RDBMS)  Data in one table (file) can be related to data in another.  Each table contains data on an entity and its attributes  Flexible. dynamic relationship building  Example: Oracle.Databases 11 . IBM’s DB2 Table 2 Table 1 8/24/2013 IIT 13 .

Part_Name.Supplier_Number AND Part_Number = 137 OR Part_Number = 150. SUPPLIER. PART.Databases .Relational DBMS Key Field(Primary Field) Foreign Key SELECT PART. SUPPLIER.Supplier_Names FROM PART.Supplier_Number = SUPPLIER. 12 8/24/2013 IIT 13 .Part_Number. SUPPLIER WHERE PART.Supplier_Number.

Databases 13 .RDBMS Example Order Ord No Ord Dt Supp No Order Line Dtls Ord No Part No Part Qty Part Part No Part Name Part Price Supp No Person Resp Deptt Supplier Supp No Supp Name Supp Street Supp City Supp State Supp Zip 8/24/2013 IIT 13 .

RDBMS Example 8/24/2013 IIT 13 .Databases 14 .

etc. voice.  Enables handling of multimedia components(graphics. text. pictures.Databases 15 .Object-oriented Databases  Database of objects (data values + procedures).). 8/24/2013 IIT 13 .

Databases 16 . volume of data stored. Amazon Simple Storage Service(S3) 8/24/2013 IIT 13 .Databases In The Cloud  Cloud based database management services  Pricing based on usage. number of input-output requests. amount of data read or written etc  Amazon Web Services .

Database Access By Applications On one machine could run against a database Application ‘Client’ Database ‘Server’ On another machine 8/24/2013 IIT 13 .Databases 17 .

manipulate information e. retrieve and update the data from the database 8/24/2013 IIT 13 . SQL(Structured Query Language)  Add.Databases 18 .Capabilities Of DBMS  Data definition language (schema):  Specify the structure  Create database tables  Define field characteristics in each table  Data dictionary (stored data definitions)  Data manipulation language:  Tools to access.g. delete.

refines and streamlines  Entity relationship diagrams  Normalization: Rationalize (“Normalize”) data  Create small. stable. flexible and adaptive data structures 8/24/2013 IIT 13 .Designing Databases  Database Design: How the data elements in a database will be grouped  Designing process  Identifies Relationships between data elements  Groups data elements.Databases 19 .

Normalization •Creates small. flexible data structures from complex groups of data •Simplifies the way data is defined to ensure data consistency and reduce redundancy 8/24/2013 IIT 13 . stable.Databases 20 .

Databases 21 .Entity Relationship Diagram One-To-One Class 1 Class 2 Class One-To-Many Student 1 8/24/2013 Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 2 Student 3 Many-To-Many IIT 13 .