Why are fire detection and alarm systems required?
 Detect fire in the areas.  Notify building occupants to take evasive action to escape the

dangers of a hostile fire.  Summon organized assistance to initiate or assist in fire control activities.  Initiate automatic fire control & suppression systems & to sound alarm.  Supervise fire control & suppression systems to assure operational status is maintained Initiate auxiliary functions involving environmental, utility & process controls

Systems may incorporate one or all of these functions 2

Block diagram of FDA system

Input Devices

Control Panel

Output Devices

Input Devices  Fire Box (Manual Pull Station)  When shorted trips an alarm (usually fire)  Installed in the normal exit path  Types of Fire Box  Single Action  Pull handle once  Glass Break  Glass rod or plate is broken  Double Action  Lifting of a cover or opening a door 4 .

2) Smoke detectors 1. Ultraviolet light (UV) 2.1) Heat detectors 1.3) Flame detectors 1.Input Devices FIRE DETECTORS 3. Ionization 3. rate-of-rise type heat detector 3. fixed temp type heat detector 2. Photoelectric 2. Infrared (IR) 3.4) Fire-gas detectors Heat Detectors Smoke Detector 5 .

6 .

Fixed temp. heat detectors     Detect heat by one or more of 3 primary principles of physics: Expansion of heated material Melting of heated material Changes in resistance of heated material .

they can be activated under non fire conditions (eg. exceeds 12-15F (7-8C) per minute Alarm can be initiated at a temp. device ◦ Reliable devices. detector located too close to doorway and subject to extreme fluctuations in temperatures)    Pneumatic rate-of-rise spot detector Pneumatic rate-of-rise line detector Thermoelectric detector . far below that required for a fixedtemp.Rate-of-rise heat detectors    Operate on the principle that the temperature in a room will increase faster from fire than from atmospheric temperature Will initiate an alarm when the rise in temp. not subject to false activations ◦ But if not properly installed.

Basically smoke entering the smoke detector chamber disrupts the light beam causing an alarm signal to be initiated  More sensitive to smoldering fires 1: optical chamber 2: cover 3: case moulding 4: Photodiode (detector) 5: infrared LED 9 .Photoelectric smoke detector   Uses a photocell coupled with a specific light source.

Circuit of Photoelectric Smoke Detector 10 .

 Generally responds faster to flaming fires versus smoldering fires  Automatically resets when the atmosphere clears 11 .Ionization smoke detector  Invisible products of combustion enter the chamber decreasing the current between the –ve & +ve plates. thereby initiating an alarm signal.

Fire-gas detectors  Monitors levels of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide (common to all fires)  More discriminating than other detectors – can be designed to be sensitive only to gases produced by specific types of hostile fires and ignores gases produced by friendly fires  Not many in use – very specialized applications .

Combination detectors  Single device can be designed to have more than 1 function eg. smoke/carbon monoxide detectors  Different combination make the detectors more versatile and more responsive to fire conditions . heat/smoke.

Cable gallery Combination of Optical type smoke detectors and Linear heat sensor running above all HV and LV power cable trays. PLANT AREA Main control room. 3. Switchgear rooms in main Plant and outlying areas. Computer room. The optical smoke detector and LHS detectors along with necessary number of interface units in the cable gallery will be cross zoned to actuate the water spray system Infrared flame detectors (where oil tanks are located). 2. detector with fixed temperature setting. Electronic cubicle room and control rooms in outlying areas. spray 14 tanks rate of rise of temp. 6.No 1. detector with fixed element 5. Battery rooms and chemically Corrosion resistant. Ionisation type smoke detector 4. Station building / Plant area . Unless the vertical distance between cable tray is less than 500 mm in which case alternate trays (in addition to the top and bottom trays). record and shift-in-charge engineers room Office rooms / storage rooms TYPE OF DETECTORS Combination of - Ionisation smoke detector Optical type smoke detector Ionisation type smoke detector. battery charger room. Rate of rise of temperature heat corrosive areas.Selection of Detectors for different Area S.

LHS cables 11. infra red spark / ember detectors and manual call points. If water spray system is provided the LHS cable and IR detector will be cross zoned to actuate the same Flame proof manual call points 9. flame proof MCPs. flame proof manual call points 10. 15 . DG element and flame proof MCP houses. Coal Conveyors 8. Flame proof heat detectors.7. Hazardous plant areas such Flame proof rate of rise of temperature detector with fixed as fuel oil / lube oil. Dusty areas in coal handling plants like crusher house Junction towers Analogue Linear heat sensor cable. Conveyor tunnels Flame proof infrared detectors. H2 generating plants and hydrogen storage areas.

Output Devices Audible Output Devices  An audible alarm signal lets people know the alarm system has been activated  Devices may be mounted inside or outside based on level of protection required  May consist of:  Sirens  Bells  Buzzers  Horns  Voice Drivers 16 .

Output Devices Visual Output Devices  A visual signal lets users know the status of the alarm system if activated  Visual devices may be mounted inside or outside  May consist of..  Strobe lights  LED’s  On / Off site printer 17 ..

construction and operational features of all types of detectors shall be in accordance with relevant standards.  The number of fire detectors to be installed is governed by  total area to be protected  type of building construction  air movement & air velocity  ceiling obstructions  concentration of equipment in the area covered  sensitivity required  Area is divided into zones to be protected  The zones of individual detectors should overlap and no blind zone 1 8 should be left. .Criteria to determine layout of the fire detectors  The design.

 Areas above false ceiling and below false flooring shall be considered as separate zones.  Detectors must always installed at the highest point of the ceiling and minimum coverage indicated by manufacture shall be considered.  Ionisation type detectors should be located where the largest combustible gas concentration can be expected.  Under ideal conditions of smooth ceiling and average room size.  In the air conditioned areas both ionisation and optical type smoke detectors are used.  The number of detectors and their location should be so selected that 19 complete coverage is obtained . one detector is recommended to protect the area.

m per detector for main control room.Initial quantity estimation of smoke / heat detectors  35 to 40 sq. electronic cubicle room.  20 to 25 sq. in view of high valve concentration  The exact requirement shall calculated based on relevant IS/NFPA standard 2 0 . computer room. etc.m per detector for general application..

µ-P Based Addressable FDA System 2 1 . Conventional FDA System B.TYPES OF FIRE DETECTION SYSTEM A.

Main fire alarm panel shall derive signals from the zone indicating panels and audible and visual annunciation shall be provided in the event of fire. Fire detectors shall be selected depending on the type of fire expected in a particular area.  22 .   Repeater panel shall be located in security house / fire station to alert fire fighting / security personnel.CONVENTIONAL FIRE DETECTION AND ALARM SYSTEM  Conventional fire sensors and manual call points shall provide for continuous surveillance the area.

 the alarm / system resetting shall be by common push button and not by individual switches for different zones / detectors. 2 3 . All the fire alarm circuits shall be of modular design using electronic printed card circuits to facilitate easy replacement.  The system design shall be such that operation / resetting of alarms for one zone / detector will not block availability of alarm for any other zone.

These are wired to control & indicating equipment which shows the location of alarm call. & actuates audible alarm sounders.  Industrial/ Non Industrial Buildings  Institutional Buildings  Residential Apartments  Hotel & Hospitals  All Industries  Mall & Multi Storied Complexes  Offices & Control Rooms 24 .Addressable Fire Detection & Alarm System It is an automatic fire detection & alarm system consists of fire detectors & manual call points positioned in Zones/ loop through out a building(Area).

   Addressable I/P devices Addressable O/P devices Control panel  Addressable µ-P based FDA system  Constant power supply Emergency Battery supply 25 .

Microprocessor Based control Panel  Processor(CPU)  Adequate number of loop modules for detector loops  A coloured VDU monitor with keyboard  Output modules for alarm  Output control & interlocks  Communication modules for interfacing 2 6 .

27 . humidity. Individual detector addressing capability.BENEFITS OF µ-P BASED ADDRESSABLE FDA SYSTEM  Continuous supervision of the detector connecting lines. Detection of over / under sensitive detectors and automatic calibration by increasing or decreasing their sensitivity levels based on environmental conditions like air movement. Facility shall be provided for alteration programme according to needs. etc. fumes.    Discrimination between a real fire and false fire conditions by incorporating signal verification and other features.   Pre-alarm in case of any detector / detectors requiring maintenance. individual detector performance / operation and disconnection / removal of detectors.

Under writers’ Laboratories (UL) – USA Fire Officers Committee (FOC) – UK Any other internationally recognised body acceptable to Purchaser / Consultant. 28 . Approval certificates shall be furnished with the bid. B. C.CLEARANCE AND APPROVALS All detectors and sensors shall be approved by any of the following bodies as applicable : A.

of Atomic Energy (DAE) Certification of safety from radioactivity. Dept. Roorkee D. Local Fire Authority. Dhanbad. 29 .The Contractor shall be solely responsible for obtaining the required approval and clearance for the different components and systems of the fire detection and alarm system from the following authorities as applicable. B. C. Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC) of the Insurance Association of India. A. E. Central Building Research Institute (CBRL). Central Mining Research Station (CMRS).

FOC RULES   Code of practice for fire safety of buildings . ANSI-UL268 3 0 .BS-5839 PART1.SOME APPLICABLE STANDARDS  Code of practice for selection.ANSI-NFPA-72.IS-1646 Smoke detectors for use in automatic fire alarm system-IS-11360. BS-5445 PART-7. installation & maintenance of automatic fire alarm & detection system-IS-2189.

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