This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

1

GAUSS ELIMINATION AND

GAUSS-JORDAN ELIMINATION

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

2

An m × n Matrix

If m and n are positive integers, then an m × n matrix is a

rectangular array in which each entry a

ij

of the matrix is a

number. The matrix has m rows and n columns.

(

(

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

n m m m m

n

n

n

a a a a

a a a a

a a a a

a a a a

, 3 , 2 , 1 ,

, 3 3 , 3 2 , 3 1 , 3

, 2 3 , 2 2 , 2 1 , 2

, 1 3 , 1 2 , 1 1 , 1

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

3

Terminology

A real matrix is a matrix all of whose entries are

real numbers.

i (j) is called the row (column) subscript.

An m×n matrix is said to be of size (or dimension)

m×n.

If m=n the matrix is square of order n.

If m=n , then the a

i,i

’s are the diagonal entries

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

4

Augmented Matrix for a System of Equations

Given a system of equations we can talk about its

coefficient matrix and its augmented matrix.

To solve the system we can now use row operations

instead of equation operations to put the augmented

matrix in row echelon form.

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

5

Row-Echelon Form

A matrix is in row-echelon form if:

• The lower left quadrant of the matrix has all zero entries.

• In each row that is not all zeros the first entry is a 1.

• The diagonal elements of the coefficient matrix are all 1

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

6

Gauss Elimination

The operations in the Gauss elimination are called

elementary operations.

Elementary operations for rows are:

• Interchange of two rows.

• Multiplication of a row by a nonzero constant.

• Addition of a constant multiple of one row to another

row.

Two matrices are said to be row equivalent if one

matrix can be obtained from the other using

elementary row operations

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

7

Gauss Elimination for Solving A

System of Equations

1. Write the augmented matrix of the system.

2. Use elementary row operations to construct a row

equivalent matrix in row-echelon form.

3. Write the system of equations corresponding to the

matrix in row-echelon form.

4. Use back-substitution to find the solutions to this

system.

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

8

Example 1: Gauss Elimination

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

÷ = ÷ +

= + + ÷

= + ÷

31 8 3 5

7 7 5 3

36 5 4 2

z y x

z y x

z y x

Let us consider the set of linearly independent equations.

Augmented matrix for the set is:

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷

÷

÷

31 8 3 5

7 7 5 3

36 5 4 2

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

9

Example 1: Gauss Elimination

Augmented matrix:

• For Gauss Elimination, the Augmented Matrix (A) is

used so that both A and b can be manipulated together.

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

10

Example 1: Gauss Elimination

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

÷ = ÷ +

= + + ÷

= + ÷

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷

÷

÷

31 8 3 5

7 7 5 3

36 5 4 2

31 8 3 5

7 7 5 3

36 5 4 2

z y x

z y x

z y x

Step 1: Eliminate x from the 2nd and 3rd equation.

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

÷ = ÷

= + ÷

= + ÷

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷

÷

÷

121 5 . 20 13

61 5 . 14

36 5 4 2

121 5 . 20 13 0

61 5 . 14 1 0

36 5 4 2

z y

z y

z y x

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

11

Example 1: Gauss Elimination

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

672 168 0 0

61 5 . 14 1 0

36 5 4 2

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

=

= + ÷

= + ÷

672 168

61 5 . 14

36 5 4 2

z

z y

z y x

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷

÷

4 1 0 0

61 5 . 14 1 0

18 5 . 2 2 1

Step 2: Eliminate y from the 3rd equation.

13R’

2

+R’

3

R’’

3

Step 3:

0.5R’

1

R’

1

-R’

2

R’’

2

(1/168)R’’

3

R’’’

3

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

=

÷ = ÷

= + ÷

4

61 5 . 14

18 5 . 2 2

z

z y

z y x

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

12

Example 1: Gauss Elimination

From Row 3, z = 4

From Row 2, y -14.5z = -61 or, y - 14.5 (4) = 61 or, y = - 3

From Row 1, x – 2y + 2.5z = 18 or, x – 2 (- 3) + 2.55 (4) = 18

or, x = 2

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷

÷

4 1 0 0

61 5 . 14 1 0

18 5 . 2 2 1

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

=

÷ = ÷

= + ÷

4

61 5 . 14

18 5 . 2 2

z

z y

z y x

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

13

Example 2: Gauss Elimination

Let us consider another set of linearly independent equations.

The augmented matrix for this set is:

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

14

Example 2: Gauss Elimination

Step 1: Eliminate x from the 2nd and 3rd equation.

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

15

Example 2: Gauss Elimination

From Row 3, therefore, z = ?

From Row 2, ? From Row 1, ?

Step 2: Eliminate y from the 3

rd

equation.

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

16

Example 3: Gauss Elimination

When would you interchange two equations (rows)?

Let us consider the following set of equations.

The corresponding augmented matrix is:

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

17

Example 3: Gauss Elimination

The solution is: x = - 3, y = 4, z = 2

Eqn. (1) (Row 1) cannot be used to eliminate x from Eqns. (2)

and (3) (Rows 2 and 3).

Interchange Row 1 with Row 2. The augmented matrix

becomes:

Now follow the steps mentioned earlier to solve for the

unknowns.

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

18

Example 4: Gauss Elimination

Problem:

A garden supply centre buys flower seed in bulk then mixes and packages

the seeds for home garden use. The supply center provides 3 different

mixes of flower seeds: “Wild Thing”, “Mommy Dearest” and “Medicine

Chest”.

1) One kilogram of Wild Thing seed mix contains 500 grams of wild flower

seed, 250 grams of Echinacea seed and 250 grams of Chrysanthemum

seed.

2) Mommy Dearest mix is a product that is commonly purchased through

the gift store and consists of 75% Chrysanthemum seed and 25% wild

flower seed.

3) The Medicine Chest mix has gained a lot of attention lately, with the

interest in medicinal plants, and contains only Echinacea seed, but the mix

must include some vermiculite (10% by weight of the total mixture) for ease

of planting.

To be continued…

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

19

Example 4: Gauss Elimination

Cont’d

In a single order, the store received 17 grams of wild flower seed, 15

grams of Echinacea seed and 21 grams of Chrysanthemum seed.

Assume that the garden center has an ample supply of vermiculite on

hand.

Use matrices and complete Gauss-Jordan Elimination to determine

how much of each mixture the store can prepare.

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

20

Example 4: Gauss Elimination

Solution:

• Assign variables to the

amount of each mix that will

be produced.

• Perform a balance on each

of the components that are

available.

Let X = Amount of Wild Thing

Let Y = Amount of Mommy Dearest

Let Z = Amount of Medicine Chest

Wild flower 0.5X + 0.25Y + 0Z = 17g

Echinacea 0.25X + 0Y + 0.9Z = 15g

Chrysanthemum 0.25X + 0.75Y + 0Z = 21g

In matrix form, this can be written as

b Ax =

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

21

Example 4: Gauss Elimination

Before the matrices are populated, it is (sometimes) helpful to re-

arrange the equations to reduce the number of steps in the Gauss

Elimination. To do this (if there seems like an easy solution), attempt

to move zeros to the bottom left, and try to maintain the first row with

non-zeros except for the last entry, since row 1 is used to reduce

other rows.

By moving the last column (Z) to the front, and switching the first and

second row, the new set of equations becomes:

Echinacea 0.9Z + 0.25X + 0Y = 15g

Wild flower 0Z + 0.5X + 0.25Y = 17g

Chrysanthemum 0Z + 0.25X + 0.75Y = 21g

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

22

Example 4: Gauss Elimination

• Apply the Gauss

Elimination:

Z = 10, X = 24, and Y = 20

(

(

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

21

4

3

4

1

0

17

4

1

2

1

0

15 0

4

1

10

9

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

23

Gauss-Jordan Elimination

In Gauss-Jordan elimination, we continue the reduction of

the augmented matrix until we get a row equivalent matrix

in reduced row-echelon form. (r-e form where every

column with a leading 1 has rest zeros)

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

c

b

a

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

24

Gauss-Jordan Elimination

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

÷ = ÷ +

= + + ÷

= + ÷

31 8 3 5

7 7 5 3

36 5 4 2

z y x

z y x

z y x

Let us consider the set of linearly independent equations.

Augmented matrix for the set is:

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷

÷

÷

31 8 3 5

7 7 5 3

36 5 4 2

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

25

Gauss-Jordan Elimination

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

÷ = ÷ +

= + + ÷

= + ÷

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷

÷

÷

31 8 3 5

7 7 5 3

36 5 4 2

31 8 3 5

7 7 5 3

36 5 4 2

z y x

z y x

z y x

Step 1: Eliminate x from the 2nd and 3rd equation.

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

÷ = ÷

= + ÷

= + ÷

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷

÷

÷

121 5 . 20 13

61 5 . 14

36 5 4 2

121 5 . 20 13 0

61 5 . 14 1 0

36 5 4 2

z y

z y

z y x

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

26

Gauss-Jordan Elimination

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

672 168 0 0

61 5 . 14 1 0

36 5 4 2

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

=

= + ÷

= + ÷

672 168

61 5 . 14

36 5 4 2

z

z y

z y x

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷

÷

4 1 0 0

61 5 . 14 1 0

18 5 . 2 2 1

Step 2: Eliminate y from the 3rd equation.

13R’

2

+R’

3

R’’

3

Step 3:

0.5R’

1

R’

1

-R’

2

R’’

2

(1/168)R’’

3

R’’’

3

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

=

÷ = ÷

= + ÷

4

61 5 . 14

18 5 . 2 2

z

z y

z y x

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

27

Gauss-Jordan Elimination

) 2 ( ) 5 . 14 ( ) 3 ( Row Row + ×

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷

÷

4 1 0 0

61 5 . 14 1 0

18 5 . 2 2 1

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

=

÷ = ÷

= + ÷

4

61 5 . 14

18 5 . 2 2

z

z y

z y x

Step 4: Eliminate z from the 2

nd

equation

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

4 1 0 0

3 0 1 0

18 5 . 2 2 1

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

=

÷ =

= + ÷

4

3

18 5 . 2 2

z

y

z y x

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

28

Gauss-Jordan Elimination

1 ) 1 ( ) 2 ( ) 2 ( Row New Row Row ¬ + ×

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

4 1 0 0

3 0 1 0

18 5 . 2 2 1

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

=

÷ =

= + ÷

4

3

18 5 . 2 2

z

y

z y x

Step 5-1: Eliminate y from the 1st equation

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

4 1 0 0

3 0 1 0

12 5 . 2 0 1

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

=

÷ =

= +

4

3

12 5 . 2

z

y

z x

G

a

u

s

s

E

l

i

m

i

n

a

t

i

o

n

29

Gauss-Jordan Elimination

1 ) 1 ( ) 5 . 2 ( ) 3 ( Row New Row Row ¬ + ÷ ×

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

4 1 0 0

3 0 1 0

12 5 . 2 0 1

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

=

÷ =

= +

4

3

12 5 . 2

z

y

z x

Step 5-2: Eliminate z from the 1st equation

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

4 1 0 0

3 0 1 0

2 0 0 1

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

=

÷ =

=

4

3

2

z

y

x

- Tema Hari Guru
- BILIK DARJAH
- Contoh Soalan Kajian Tindakan
- Laporan Aktiviti Panitia Math
- BERFIKIR KRITIS-PSPDG
- RPH MT TAHUN 2
- BILIK DARJAH
- Sk Rpt Pen. Kesihatan Tahun 4 Shared by Azmi Suhaili
- Garis Panduan Internship PPG - Versi Final 2014
- Buku Pengurusan Peribadi 2015 Terbaik Oleh Cikgu Suriati Ku Ishak
- Kesan Penggunaan Latihan Metakognitif Dalam Menyelesaikan Masalah Pembelajaran Matematik Di Sekolah Rendah Satu Kajian Kes
- Nota Exam AR
- Contoh Kajian Tindakan _matematik
- Nota-Ringkas-Edu3108.pdf
- CK LAGU
- SENARAI SEMAK PSV
- 2014 Hr Guru
- 2014 Hr Guru
- PERURUSAN 2013
- PERUTUSAN 2011
- PERUTUSAN 2012
- PERUTUSAN 2014
- Laporan Kssr Mzk -Azizom 2013
- RPT TAHUN 1 DSV
- Pelan Strategik Dan Kpi Pend Muzik (2)

- W7 Linear Equations
- Computer Computation - Chapter 3
- linear algebra course part 2
- 07. Matrix methods
- heat transfer
- Mathematics Notes Chapter 3_Matrices
- Linear Algebra HW1
- Term 1 Chapter 3 - Matrices
- Gauss
- Lecture 05
- Reflection paper_Travel
- CS 130 Lecture 3
- Linear Algebra and Numerical Analysis
- Term 1 Chapter 3 - Matrices_new_2013
- 3D8A7D53d01
- Numerical Analysis-Solving Linear Systems
- LU Decomposition
- MathematicalMethodsUnit-I
- 7 1 Introduction to Matrices
- Chapter 1 Basic Linear Algebra 1_1314 [Compatibility Mode]
- Satoh RBlup
- 7 1 Introduction to Matrices
- Chapter 13 II Matrices ENHANCE
- LU
- Chapter 3
- LinearAlgebra
- c.p5
- 1 Matrix for Lms
- Inverse Matrix
- c2-9.pdf
- Gaussian GaussianJordan

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd