last edited : august 6th 2007 last edited : august 6th 2007

Komputasi dan Simulasi
Komputasi dan Simulasi
Transport Neutron
Transport Neutron
Coaching Neutronik 2008
Coaching Neutronik 2008
Computational Division
Computational Division
PPIN – BATAN
PPIN – BATAN

Pendahuluan
Pendahuluan

Masalah utama dalam fisika reaktor
Masalah utama dalam fisika reaktor
nuklir adalah penentuan distribusi
nuklir adalah penentuan distribusi
neutron dalam teras reaktor.
neutron dalam teras reaktor.

Distribusi neutron menentukan laju
Distribusi neutron menentukan laju
terjadinya berbagai reaksi nuklir
terjadinya berbagai reaksi nuklir
dalam teras reaktor.
dalam teras reaktor.

Dengan memahami keadaan
Dengan memahami keadaan
populasi neutron maka stabilitas dari
populasi neutron maka stabilitas dari
reaksi fisi berantai dapat diprediksi
reaksi fisi berantai dapat diprediksi
dengan baik.
dengan baik.

Proses transport neutron..
Proses transport neutron..

Untuk menentukan distribusi neutron
Untuk menentukan distribusi neutron
dalam teras reaktor kita harus
dalam teras reaktor kita harus
memahami dengan baik proses
memahami dengan baik proses
transport neutron.
transport neutron.

Yaitu proses yang terjadi selama
Yaitu proses yang terjadi selama
neutron bergerak dalam teras
neutron bergerak dalam teras
reaktor, yang melibatkan berbagai
reaktor, yang melibatkan berbagai
interaksi neutron dengan inti
interaksi neutron dengan inti
penyusun teras reaktor berupa
penyusun teras reaktor berupa
tumbukan hingga akhirnya neutron
tumbukan hingga akhirnya neutron
hilang karena diserap atau keluar
hilang karena diserap atau keluar
dari teras reaktor.
dari teras reaktor.

Proses difusi..
Proses difusi..

Kebanyakan studi neutronik teras
Kebanyakan studi neutronik teras
reaktor memperlakukan gerak
reaktor memperlakukan gerak
neutron sebagai proses difusi.
neutron sebagai proses difusi.

Dimana diasumsikan bahwa neutron
Dimana diasumsikan bahwa neutron
cendrung untuk berdifusi dari daerah
cendrung untuk berdifusi dari daerah
dengan densitas neutron tinggi ke
dengan densitas neutron tinggi ke
daerah dengan densitas neutron
daerah dengan densitas neutron
lebih rendah, seperti difusi panas
lebih rendah, seperti difusi panas
dari daerah bertemperatur tinggi ke
dari daerah bertemperatur tinggi ke
temperatur rendah.
temperatur rendah.

Keterbatasan ‘difusi’..
Keterbatasan ‘difusi’..

Namun,berbeda dengan
Namun,berbeda dengan
penanganan difusi pada
penanganan difusi pada
konduksi panas dan gas yang
konduksi panas dan gas yang
yang memberikan simulasi yang
yang memberikan simulasi yang
akurat, pendekatan difusi
akurat, pendekatan difusi
terhadap transport neutron
terhadap transport neutron
memiliki validitas yang terbatas.
memiliki validitas yang terbatas.

Diffusion’s limitation..(cont’d)
Diffusion’s limitation..(cont’d)

The reason for this failure is easily
The reason for this failure is easily
understood when it is noted that in
understood when it is noted that in
most diffusion process the diffusing
most diffusion process the diffusing
particles are
particles are
characterized by very
characterized by very
frequent collisions
frequent collisions
that give rise to
that give rise to
very irregular, almost random, zigzag
very irregular, almost random, zigzag
trajectories.
trajectories.

However, the cross-section for
However, the cross-section for
neutron-nuclear collisions is quite
neutron-nuclear collisions is quite
small (about 10
small (about 10
-24 -24
cm
cm
2 2
). Hence
). Hence
neutron tend to stream relatively
neutron tend to stream relatively
large distances between interactions.
large distances between interactions.

Diffusion’s limitation..(cont’d)
Diffusion’s limitation..(cont’d)

The mean free path (mfp)
The mean free path (mfp)
characterizing fast neutrons is
characterizing fast neutrons is
typically on the order of centimeters.
typically on the order of centimeters.

And the dimensions characterizing
And the dimensions characterizing
changes in reactor core composition
changes in reactor core composition
are usually comparable to a neutron
are usually comparable to a neutron
mfp. (noted that a reactor fuel pin is
mfp. (noted that a reactor fuel pin is
typically about 1 cm in diameter).
typically about 1 cm in diameter).

Hence, it is required a more accurate
Hence, it is required a more accurate
description of neutron transport that
description of neutron transport that
takes into account the relatively long
takes into account the relatively long
neutron mfp and neutron streaming.
neutron mfp and neutron streaming.

Diffusion’s limitation..(cont’d)
Diffusion’s limitation..(cont’d)

In practical problem, neutron
In practical problem, neutron
diffusion theory is invalid near
diffusion theory is invalid near
the boundary of a reactor, or
the boundary of a reactor, or
near a highly absorbing material
near a highly absorbing material
such as a fuel rod or control
such as a fuel rod or control
element.
element.

More accurate ???
More accurate ???

Such a description has been
Such a description has been
borrowed from the kinetic theory of
borrowed from the kinetic theory of
rarefied gases (which are also
rarefied gases (which are also
characterized by long mfp).
characterized by long mfp).

The fundamental equation describing
The fundamental equation describing
dilute gases was first proposed more
dilute gases was first proposed more
than one century ago by Boltzmann,
than one century ago by Boltzmann,
and even today the Boltzmann
and even today the Boltzmann
equation remain the principal tool of
equation remain the principal tool of
the gas dynamicist.
the gas dynamicist.

Neutron transport equation
Neutron transport equation

Its counter part for the neutron “gas” called ‘ Its counter part for the neutron “gas” called ‘neutron neutron
transport equation transport equation’. ’.

It is far simpler than Boltzmann equation. Where it It is far simpler than Boltzmann equation. Where it
is linear equation while the boltzmann equation is is linear equation while the boltzmann equation is
non linear equation. non linear equation.

Neutron transport equation is much simpler to Neutron transport equation is much simpler to
derive, requiring only the derive, requiring only the concept of neutron concept of neutron
conservation plus a bit of vector calculus conservation plus a bit of vector calculus, and , and
easier to understand than the neutron diffusion easier to understand than the neutron diffusion
equation. equation.

It is far more fundamental and exact description of It is far more fundamental and exact description of
the neutron population in reactor, indeed, the neutron population in reactor, indeed, it is the it is the
fundamental cornerstone on which all of the various fundamental cornerstone on which all of the various
approximate methods used in nuclear reactor approximate methods used in nuclear reactor
analysis are based analysis are based. .

Transport problem..
Transport problem..

But, neutron transport theory has
But, neutron transport theory has
come to be associated with a
come to be associated with a
hideous plethora of impenetrable
hideous plethora of impenetrable
mathematics, unwieldy formulas, and
mathematics, unwieldy formulas, and
the expenditure of enourmos
the expenditure of enourmos
amounts of money on computer
amounts of money on computer
number-crunching.
number-crunching.

It is usually very dificult to solve the
It is usually very dificult to solve the
transport equation for any but
transport equation for any but
simplest modeled problems
simplest modeled problems

But..
But..

However that is quite all right, since it is not However that is quite all right, since it is not
the intent to attack the transport equation the intent to attack the transport equation
head on (for a while). head on (for a while).

Rather the job of the reactor analyst is to Rather the job of the reactor analyst is to
develop suitable (calculationally feasible develop suitable (calculationally feasible
and accurate) approximation to it. and accurate) approximation to it.

Usually, only by comparing these various Usually, only by comparing these various
approximation theories to the transport approximation theories to the transport
equation from which they originated can equation from which they originated can
one really assess their range of validity. one really assess their range of validity.

The effort in understanding the neutron The effort in understanding the neutron
transport equation will provide one with a transport equation will provide one with a
much deeper and more thorough much deeper and more thorough
understanding of the approximate methods understanding of the approximate methods

Some Introductory Concept
Some Introductory Concept

Neutron Density and Flux
Neutron Density and Flux

Start by defining the neutron density
Start by defining the neutron density
N(r,t) at any point in reactor core by
N(r,t) at any point in reactor core by


N(r,t) d
N(r,t) d
3 3
r
r


expected number of
expected number of
neutrons in d
neutrons in d
3 3
r about r at a time t
r about r at a time t
.
.

It is a statistical theory in which only
It is a statistical theory in which only
mean or average values are
mean or average values are
calculated.
calculated.

The neutron density N(r,t) is of
The neutron density N(r,t) is of
interest because it allows us to
interest because it allows us to
calculate the rate at which nuclear
calculate the rate at which nuclear
reactions are occuring at any point in
reactions are occuring at any point in
the reactor.
the reactor.

Neutron Density and Flux (cont’d)
Neutron Density and Flux (cont’d)

Let us suppose that all the neutrons
Let us suppose that all the neutrons
in the reactor have the same speed
in the reactor have the same speed
ν
ν
.
.

The frequency with which a neutron
The frequency with which a neutron
will experience a given neutron-
will experience a given neutron-
nuclear reaction in terms of the
nuclear reaction in terms of the
macrocospic cross section
macrocospic cross section
characteizing that reaction
characteizing that reaction
Σ
Σ
and the
and the
neutron speed v is
neutron speed v is
v
v
Σ
Σ
= interaction frequency
= interaction frequency


Hence, the reaction-rate density
Hence, the reaction-rate density
F(r,t) at any point in the system is
F(r,t) at any point in the system is
defined by multiplying the neutron
defined by multiplying the neutron
density N(r,t) by the interaction
density N(r,t) by the interaction
frequency
frequency
v
v
Σ
Σ
:
:
F(r,t) d
F(r,t) d
3 3
r
r


v
v
Σ
Σ
N(r,t) d
N(r,t) d
3 3
r
r



expected rate at
expected rate at
which interactions are
which interactions are
occuring in d
occuring in d
3 3
r about r at
r about r at
a time t.
a time t.
Neutron Density and Flux (cont’d)
Neutron Density and Flux (cont’d)


Example :
Example :
Neutron density of N=10
Neutron density of N=10
8 8
cm
cm
-3 -3
in a
in a
graphite medium where its total
graphite medium where its total
cross section
cross section
Σ
Σ
t t
=0.385 cm
=0.385 cm
-1 -1
, neutron
, neutron
speed 2.2x10
speed 2.2x10
5 5
cm/sec.
cm/sec.
We would
We would
find a reaction rate density of
find a reaction rate density of
8.47x10
8.47x10
12 12
reactions/cm
reactions/cm
3 3
/sec.
/sec.
In this
In this
particular case, most of these
particular case, most of these
reactions would consist of scattering
reactions would consist of scattering
collisions.
collisions.
Neutron Density and Flux (cont’d)
Neutron Density and Flux (cont’d)


These concept can easily be
These concept can easily be
extended to the case in which the
extended to the case in which the
neutron density is different for
neutron density is different for
various neutron energies E by
various neutron energies E by
defining :
defining :
N(r,E,t) d
N(r,E,t) d
3 3
r dE ≡ expected number of
r dE ≡ expected number of
neutrons in d
neutrons in d
3 3
r about r, energies in
r about r, energies in
dE about E, at time t.
dE about E, at time t.

Also the reaction rate density
Also the reaction rate density

F(r,t) d
F(r,t) d
3 3
r dE ≡ v
r dE ≡ v
Σ
Σ
(E) N(r,E,t) d
(E) N(r,E,t) d
3 3
r dE
r dE

Neutron Density and Flux (cont’d)
Neutron Density and Flux (cont’d)


The product vN(r,t) occurs very
The product vN(r,t) occurs very
frequently in reactor theory, and
frequently in reactor theory, and
therefore it is given a special name
therefore it is given a special name
Φ
Φ
(r,t) ≡ vN(r,t)
(r,t) ≡ vN(r,t)
≡ neutron flux
≡ neutron flux

Its unit is
Its unit is
[cm
[cm
-2 -2
sec
sec
-1 -1
]
]

Noted that
Noted that
neutron fux is scalar
neutron fux is scalar
quantity
quantity
not as others definition of
not as others definition of
flux in electromagnetic or heat
flux in electromagnetic or heat
conduction.
conduction.
Neutron Density and Flux (cont’d)
Neutron Density and Flux (cont’d)

Angular Densities and Currents
Angular Densities and Currents

So far, we already use three variable
So far, we already use three variable
to characterize the state of individual
to characterize the state of individual
neutron; the neutron position
neutron; the neutron position
(r)
(r)
, its
, its
energy
energy
(E),
(E),
and the time
and the time
(t)
(t)
at which
at which
the neutron is observed.
the neutron is observed.

Yet, notice that to specify the state of
Yet, notice that to specify the state of
the neutron, we must also give its
the neutron, we must also give its
direction of motion characterized by
direction of motion characterized by
the unit vector
the unit vector
Ω=v/|v|.
Ω=v/|v|.


By introducing this new variable lets By introducing this new variable lets
generalize the concept of density by generalize the concept of density by
defining the defining the angular neutron density angular neutron density : :
n(r,E,Ω,t) d
n(r,E,Ω,t) d
3 3
r dE dΩ =
r dE dΩ =
expected
expected
number of neutrons in d
number of neutrons in d
3 3
r about r,
r about r,
energy dE about E, moving in
energy dE about E, moving in
direction Ω in solid angle dΩ at time
direction Ω in solid angle dΩ at time
t
t
.
.

This is the most general neutron density This is the most general neutron density
function we need to define since it happens function we need to define since it happens
that that one can derive an essential exact one can derive an essential exact
equation equation, the neutron transport equation, , the neutron transport equation,
for the angular neutron density n(e,E,Ω,t). for the angular neutron density n(e,E,Ω,t).
Angular Densities and Currents
Angular Densities and Currents
(cont’d)
(cont’d)


Angular neutron flux
Angular neutron flux
φ φ(r,E,Ω,t) ≡ v (r,E,Ω,t) ≡ v
n(e,E,Ω,t)
n(e,E,Ω,t)


Angular current density
Angular current density
j(r,E,Ω,t) ≡ v j(r,E,Ω,t) ≡ v
Ωn(e,E,Ω,t)
Ωn(e,E,Ω,t)

≡ ≡

Ωφ φ(r,E,Ω,t) (r,E,Ω,t)

Notice that since Notice that since
Ω is a unit vector, the
Ω is a unit vector, the
angular flux is actually nothing more
angular flux is actually nothing more
than the magnitude of the angular
than the magnitude of the angular
current density.
current density.
|j|=| |j|=|
Ω|
Ω|φ φ = = φ φ
Angular Densities and Currents
Angular Densities and Currents
(cont’d)
(cont’d)


Angular Densities and Currents
Angular Densities and Currents
(cont’d)
(cont’d)

The angular current density has a
The angular current density has a
useful physical interpretation.
useful physical interpretation.
j(r,E,Ω,t) dA dE dΩ ≡
j(r,E,Ω,t) dA dE dΩ ≡
expected
expected
number of neutrons passing through
number of neutrons passing through
an area dA per unit time with eergy E
an area dA per unit time with eergy E
in dE, direction Ω in dΩ at time t.
in dE, direction Ω in dΩ at time t.

We can also define an angular
We can also define an angular
interaction rate
interaction rate

f(r,E,Ω,t) = v
f(r,E,Ω,t) = v
Σ
Σ
(r,E)
(r,E)
n(e,E,Ω,t)
n(e,E,Ω,t)
=
=
Σ
Σ
(r,E)
(r,E)
φ
φ
(r,E,Ω,t)
(r,E,Ω,t)


Angular Densities and Currents
Angular Densities and Currents
(cont’d)
(cont’d)

All of the angle-dependent quantities
All of the angle-dependent quantities
can be related to the earlier definition
can be related to the earlier definition
by simply integrating over the
by simply integrating over the
angular variables.
angular variables.

For neutron density :
For neutron density :
N(r,E,t)
N(r,E,t)
=
=


4 4π π
dΩ
dΩ
n(e,E,Ω,t)
n(e,E,Ω,t)
further
further
N(r,t)
N(r,t)
=
=


0 0
∞ ∞
dE N(r,E,t)
dE N(r,E,t)


= ∫
= ∫
0 0
∞ ∞
dE
dE ∫

4 4π π
dΩ
dΩ
n(e,E,Ω,t)
n(e,E,Ω,t)

Angular Densities and Currents
Angular Densities and Currents
(cont’d)
(cont’d)

For neutron flux
For neutron flux
Φ
Φ
(r,E,t) =
(r,E,t) =


4 4π π
dΩ
dΩ
φ
φ
(e,E,Ω,t)
(e,E,Ω,t)
and
and
Φ
Φ
(r,t)
(r,t)
=
=


0 0
∞ ∞
dE
dE
Φ
Φ
(r,E,t)
(r,E,t)


= ∫
= ∫
0 0
∞ ∞
dE
dE ∫

4 4π π
dΩ
dΩ
φ
φ
(e,E,Ω,t)
(e,E,Ω,t)

Angular Densities and Currents
Angular Densities and Currents
(cont’d)
(cont’d)

For neutron current
For neutron current
J(r,E,t) =
J(r,E,t) =


4 4π π
dΩ j
dΩ j
(e,E,Ω,t)
(e,E,Ω,t)
J(r,E,t) is called neutron current
J(r,E,t) is called neutron current
density
density
. Also,
. Also,
J(r,t)
J(r,t)
=
=


0 0
∞ ∞
dE
dE
J(r,E,t)
J(r,E,t)


= ∫
= ∫
0 0
∞ ∞
dE
dE ∫

4 4π π
dΩ
dΩ
j
j
(e,E,Ω,t)
(e,E,Ω,t)

More about J(r,t) and
More about J(r,t) and
Φ
Φ
(r,t)
(r,t)


Notice that J(r,t) is actually what would be Notice that J(r,t) is actually what would be
reffered to as the ‘flux’ in other fields of reffered to as the ‘flux’ in other fields of
physics, since if we have a small area dA physics, since if we have a small area dA
at a position r, then at a position r, then
J(r,t) J(r,t)
. .
dA dA = net rate at which neutrons pass = net rate at which neutrons pass
through a surface area dA. through a surface area dA.

The unit of both J(r,t) and The unit of both J(r,t) and Φ Φ(r,t) (r,t) are are
identical identical [cm [cm
-2 -2

. .
sec sec
-1 -1
]. ].

However, J is a However, J is a vector quantity vector quantity that that
characterize the net rate at which neutrons characterize the net rate at which neutrons
pass through a surface pass through a surface oriented in a given oriented in a given
direction direction, whereas , whereas Φ Φ simply characterize simply characterize
the totalrate at which neutron pass through the totalrate at which neutron pass through
a unit area, a unit area, regardless of orientation regardless of orientation. .

More about J(r,t) and
More about J(r,t) and
Φ
Φ
(r,t)
(r,t)

Such an interpretation would suggest
Such an interpretation would suggest
that
that
J
J
is a more convenient quantity
is a more convenient quantity
for describing
for describing
neutron leakage
neutron leakage
or
or
flow
flow
,
,
while
while
Φ
Φ
is more suitable for
is more suitable for
characterizing
characterizing
neutron reaction rates
neutron reaction rates

in which the total number of neutron
in which the total number of neutron
interactions in a sample is of interest.
interactions in a sample is of interest.

Although the angular flux and current
Although the angular flux and current
density are very simply related, we
density are very simply related, we
will find that there is
will find that there is
no
no
simple
simple
analogous relationship between J
analogous relationship between J
and
and
Φ
Φ
.
.

Persamaan Transport Neutron
Persamaan Transport Neutron

Pendahuluan
Pendahuluan

Persamaan yang
Persamaan yang
menggambarkan kerapatan
menggambarkan kerapatan
neutron angular pada sistem
neutron angular pada sistem
nuklir akan diturunkan dengan
nuklir akan diturunkan dengan
melakukan
melakukan
akuntansi
akuntansi
terhadap
terhadap
proses-proses
proses-proses
yang dapat
yang dapat
memunculkan
memunculkan
neutron dan
neutron dan
menghilangkan
menghilangkan
neutron dari
neutron dari
sembarang
sembarang
volume v
volume v
dalam
dalam
sistem.
sistem.

Neutron pada volume v
Neutron pada volume v

Untuk sembarang volume V,
Untuk sembarang volume V,
jumlah
jumlah
neutron
neutron
dengan energi E dalam dE,
dengan energi E dalam dE,
dengan arah
dengan arah
Ω
Ω
dalam d
dalam d
Ω
Ω
dalam V
dalam V
adalah
adalah
( ) Ω ⋅ Ω

ˆ
) ,
ˆ
, , (
3
d dE r d t E r n
V

Laju perubahannya terhadap waktu
diberikan oleh kesetimbangan berikut

Bila volume V diasumsikan tidak
bergantung waktu, maka
( ) · Ω ⋅ Ω



ˆ
) ,
ˆ
, , (
3
d dE r d t E r n
t
V
muncul pada V – hilang dari V
( ) Ω ⋅

,
`

.
|


· Ω ⋅ Ω


∫ ∫
ˆ ˆ
) ,
ˆ
, , (
3 3
d dE r d
t
n
d dE r d t E r n
t
V V
u/ simpifikasi
notasi
variabel
dihilangkan

Mekanisme pada volume V
Mekanisme pada volume V

Mekanisme neutron ‘muncul’ : Mekanisme neutron ‘muncul’ :
1. sumber neutron dalam volume V 1. sumber neutron dalam volume V
2. neutron yang terhambur dengan variabel 2. neutron yang terhambur dengan variabel
akhir akhir E, E,Ω Ω dari sembarang E’, dari sembarang E’, Ω Ω’. ’.
( (ruang energi dan arah ruang energi dan arah) )
3. neutron 3. neutron masuk volume V masuk volume V melalui melalui
permukaan S.( permukaan S.(ruang spasial ruang spasial) )

Mekanisme neutron ‘hilang’ :
4. neutron bocor melalui permukaan S.
5. neutron dalam V (dengan variabel E, Ω)
mengalami tumbukan sehingga
variabelnya menjadi E’, Ω’.

Mekanisme Neutron Muncul
Mekanisme Neutron Muncul
1.
1.
Sumber neutron pada V,
Sumber neutron pada V,
dengan definisi sumber berikut
dengan definisi sumber berikut
( ) Ω ⋅ ⋅ Ω
ˆ
,
ˆ
, ,
3
d dE r d t E r s
Maka suku sumber dinyatakan sbb:
( ) [ ] Ω ⋅ Ω

ˆ
,
ˆ
, ,
3
d dE r d t E r s
V

Mekanisme Neutron Muncul
Mekanisme Neutron Muncul
2.
2.
Neutron muncul karena tumbukan
Neutron muncul karena tumbukan
dan terhambur ke ‘ruang’ V.
dan terhambur ke ‘ruang’ V.
Laju neutron terhambur dari suatu ruang (E,Ω)
ke (E’, Ω’) adalah
( ) ( ) [ ] Ω ⋅ Ω ⋅ Ω → Ω → Σ ⋅

ˆ
,
ˆ
, ,
ˆ
'
ˆ
, ' '
3
d dE r d t E r n E E
V
s
υ
Karena harus diperhitungkan neutron dari
semua ‘ruang’ lain maka
( ) ( ) ( ) Ω ⋅
]
]
]

Ω ⋅ Ω → Ω → Σ ⋅ Ω
∫ ∫ ∫

ˆ
,
ˆ
, ,
ˆ
'
ˆ
, ' ' ' '
ˆ
0
4
3
d dE t E r n E E dE d r d
V
s
υ
π

Mekanisme Neutron ‘hilang’
Mekanisme Neutron ‘hilang’
5.
5.
Neutron yang terhambur ke ‘ruang’
Neutron yang terhambur ke ‘ruang’
lain dari V. Laju neutron mengalami
lain dari V. Laju neutron mengalami
interaksi adalah
interaksi adalah
( ) ( ) ( ) t E r n E r t E r f
t t
,
ˆ
, , , ,
ˆ
, , Ω ⋅ Σ ⋅ · Ω υ
Maka neutron yang terhambur ke ‘ruang’ V
dinyatakan sebagai berikut
( ) ( ) [ ] Ω ⋅ Ω ⋅ Σ ⋅

ˆ
,
ˆ
, , ,
3
d dE r d t E r n E r
V
t
υ

Mekanisme ‘hilang’+’muncul’
Mekanisme ‘hilang’+’muncul’
(3+4) (3+4) Bocor kedalam dan keluar volume V Bocor kedalam dan keluar volume V
digabung. digabung.
Dengan konsep rapat arus angular j, maka laju
pada E,Ω akan bocor dari permukaan dS adalah
( ) ( ) dS t E r n dS t E r j ⋅ Ω ⋅ Ω ⋅ · ⋅ Ω ,
ˆ
, ,
ˆ
,
ˆ
, , υ
Untuk seluruh permukaan, total bocor keluar dan
masuk,
( ) t E r n dS
S
,
ˆ
, ,
ˆ
Ω ⋅ Ω ⋅ ⋅

υ
Dari pers. Gauss berikut
( )
∫ ∫
⋅ ∇ · ⋅
V S
r A r d r A dS ) ( ) (
3
Didapat,
( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) Ω ⋅ Ω ⋅ Ω ⋅ ⋅ ∇ · Ω ⋅ Ω ⋅ Ω ⋅ ⋅
∫ ∫
ˆ
,
ˆ
, ,
ˆ ˆ
,
ˆ
, ,
ˆ
3
d dE t E r n r d d dE t E r n dS
V S
υ υ
( ) ( ) Ω ⋅ Ω ∇ ⋅ Ω ⋅

ˆ
,
ˆ
, ,
ˆ
3
d dE t E r n r d
V
υ Atau

Total semua mekanisme
Total semua mekanisme

Dengan mensubstitusi semuanya ke
Dengan mensubstitusi semuanya ke
pers.
pers.
Awal
Awal
diperoleh :
diperoleh :
( ) 0
ˆ
) '
ˆ ˆ
, ' ( ' '
ˆ
'
ˆ
0
4
3
· Ω ⋅
]
]
]
]


¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
⋅ Ω → Ω → Σ ⋅ Ω − ⋅ Σ ⋅ + ∇ ⋅ Ω ⋅ +


∫ ∫ ∫

d dE s n E E v d dE n n
t
n
r d
V
s t
π
υ υ
Karena volume V sembarang maka integran diatas harus nol.
Maka didapat hubungan kesetimbangan
berikut :
( ) ) ,
ˆ
, , ( ) ,
ˆ
, , ( ) '
ˆ ˆ
, ' ( ' '
ˆ
' ) ,
ˆ
, , (
ˆ
0
4
t E r s t E r n E E v d dE t E r n n
t
n
s t
Ω + Ω Ω → Ω → Σ ⋅ Ω · Ω ⋅ Σ ⋅ + ∇ ⋅ Ω ⋅ +


∫ ∫

π
υ υ

Formulasi
Formulasi
Persamaan Transpor
Persamaan Transpor

Dengan menggunakan notasi fluks angular Dengan menggunakan notasi fluks angular
maka persamaan transport biasa ditulis maka persamaan transport biasa ditulis
sbb: sbb:
( ) ) ,
ˆ
, , ( ) ,
ˆ
, , ( ) '
ˆ ˆ
, ' ( '
ˆ
' ) ,
ˆ
, , ( ) , (
ˆ
1
0
4
t E r s t E r E E d dE t E r E r
t
s t
Ω + Ω Ω → Ω → Σ Ω · Ω ⋅ Σ + ∇ ⋅ Ω +


∫ ∫

π
ϕ ϕ ϕ
ϕ
υ
Dimana :
-Syarat awal :
- Syarat batas :
) ,
ˆ
, , ( ) 0 ,
ˆ
, , (
0
t E r E r Ω · Ω ϕ ϕ
0 ) ,
ˆ
, , ( · Ω t E r
s
ϕ
Bila 0
ˆ
ˆ
< • Ω
s
e u/ semua r
s
pada S
Mis.Syarat batas
vakum

Persamaan Diffusi
Persamaan Diffusi
Satu Energi
Satu Energi

Dengan akuntansi yang sama, untuk Dengan akuntansi yang sama, untuk
asumsi satu energi diperoleh asumsi satu energi diperoleh
persamaan berikut persamaan berikut

·
]
]
]

⋅ ∇ + Σ + −


V
a
J S
t
r d 0
1
3
φ
φ
υ
Sehingga
S J
t
a
+ Σ − ⋅ −∇ ·


φ
φ
υ
1
Dari pers. Diatas, untuk dapat diselesaikan lebih
lanjut diperlukan hubungan antara J dan Φ. Ini
diberikan oleh Hukum Fick’s berikut
( ) ) , ( ) ( , t r r D t r J φ ⋅ ∇ − ≅
Konstanta
diffusi

Persamaan Diffusi
Persamaan Diffusi
Satu Energi
Satu Energi

Setelah disubstitusikan kembali
Setelah disubstitusikan kembali
maka diperoleh
maka diperoleh
) , ( ) , ( ) ( ) , ( ) (
1
t r S t r r t r r D
t
a
· Σ + ∇ ⋅ ∇ −


φ φ
φ
υ

Untuk D yang homogen :
) , ( ) , ( ) ( ) , (
1
2
t r S t r r t r D
t
a
· Σ + ∇ −


φ φ
φ
υ

Lebih jauh, untuk masalah statis :
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
r S r r r D
a
· Σ + ∇ − φ φ
Persamaan Helmholtz
Pers.Difusi
Satu Grup

Pers.Difusi : Kasus 1-D
Pers.Difusi : Kasus 1-D

Untuk satu dimensi (mis.X)
Untuk satu dimensi (mis.X)
maka
maka
) ( ) (
2
2
r S x
dx
d
D
a
· Σ + − φ
φ
0 ) ( ) 0 ( · · a φ φ

Diskritisasi ruang, operator diff.
menjadi :
( ) ...
2
2
2
1 1
+ ∆ + ∆ + · ≡
+ +
i
i
i i i
dx
d
dx
d
x
φ φ
φ φ φ
( ) ...
2
2
2
1 1
− ∆ + ∆ − · ≡
− −
i
i
i i i
dx
d
dx
d
x
φ φ
φ φ φ
2
1 1
2
2
2

+ −

− + i i i
i
dx
d φ φ φ φ

Pers.Difusi : Kasus 1-D
Pers.Difusi : Kasus 1-D

Setelah substitusi diperoleh,
Setelah substitusi diperoleh,
i i a
i i i
S D · Σ +

,
`

.
|

+ −

− +
φ
φ φ φ
2
1 1
2
i i i a i
S
D D D
·

,
`

.
|
Σ +

+


+ − 1
2 2
1
2
2
φ φ φ
Dengan pengaturan variabel :
i i i i i i i i i i
S a a a · + +
+ + − − 1 1 , , 1 1 ,
φ φ φ
Atau (untuk i=1,2,…,N-1)
S A · φ
A  matriks (n-1)x(N-1)
Φ,S vektor kolom (N-1)

Bentuk lebih umum u/ 1-D
Bentuk lebih umum u/ 1-D

Pers.diff umum 1-D pada geometri
Pers.diff umum 1-D pada geometri
bidang datar :
bidang datar :
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( x S x x
dx
d
x D
dx
d
a
· Σ + − φ
φ

Cara memecahkan persamaan ini
terbagi kedalam dua langkah :
1. menurunkan persamaaan beda
(diskritisasi).
2. menyelesaikan persamaan beda
dengan algoritma tertentu.

Diskritisasi
Diskritisasi

Metoda umum untuk memperoleh Metoda umum untuk memperoleh
pers.beda pers.beda (difference eq.) (difference eq.) adalah dengan adalah dengan
melakukan melakukan integrasi integrasi terhadap pers.diff terhadap pers.diff
pada sembarang pada sembarang mesh mesh interval. interval.

Integrasi dari tiap suku pers.diff dilakukan
terhadap mesh interval berikut :
2
1 +

+
i
i
x
2
i
i
x


i
x
1 − i
x
1 + i
x

Integrasi tiap suku
Integrasi tiap suku
suku sumber dan penyerapan suku sumber dan penyerapan

Suku sumber
Suku sumber
]
]
]


+

≅ ⋅
+

+



+
2 2
) (
1
2
2
1
i i
i
x
x
S x S dx
i
i
i
i

Suku penyerapan
]
]
]


+

Σ ≅ Σ ⋅
+

+



+
2 2
) ( ) (
1
2
2
1
i i
i a a
x
x
i
i
i
i
i
x x dx φ φ

Integrasi tiap suku
Integrasi tiap suku
suku bocor suku bocor

Suku bocor :
Suku bocor :
2
2
2
2
1
1
) ( ) (
+
+

+



+


≅ ⋅

i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
x
x
x
x
dx
d
x D
dx
d
x D
dx
d
dx
φ φ
Suku ini memerlukan beberapa langkah detail berikut :
1
1
2
1
+
+

+



+
i
i i
x
i
i
dx
d φ φ φ
i
i i
x
i
i
dx
d






1
2
φ φ φ
2
1 +

+
i
i
x
i
x
1 + i
x
2
i
i
x


1 − i
x
i
x

Integrasi tiap suku
Integrasi tiap suku
suku bocor suku bocor

Untuk nilai D,
Untuk nilai D,
[ ]
1 , 1
1
2
1
2
+ +
+
≡ + ·
,
`

.
|

+
i i i i
i
i
D D D x D
[ ]
1 , 1
2
1
2
− −
≡ + ·
,
`

.
|


i i i i
i
i
D D D x D

Sehingga total suku bocor,
1
1
1 , 1 ,
1
1 ,
1
1 ,
2
2
) (
1
+
+
+ −
+
+



+



+

,
`

.
|

+



≅ ⋅

+
i
i
i i
i
i
i i
i
i i
i
i
i i
x
x
D D D D
dx
d
x D
dx
d
dx
i
i
i
i
φ φ φ
φ

Hasil integrasi
Hasil integrasi

Substitusi hasil integrasi terhadap Substitusi hasil integrasi terhadap
pers.diffusi awal sbb: pers.diffusi awal sbb:
i i i i i i i i i i
S a a a · + +
+ + − − 1 1 , , 1 1 ,
φ φ φ
Dimana koefisiennya adalah
1
1
1 ,
1
+


∆ + ∆

,
`

.
|

+
− ·
i i i
i i
i i
D D
a
1
1
1
1
,
1
+

+
+
∆ + ∆

,
`

.
|

+
+

+
+ Σ ·
i i i
i i
i
i i
a i i
D D D D
a
1
1
1 ,
1
+
+
+
∆ + ∆

,
`

.
|

+
− ·
i i i
i i
i i
D D
a
Diperoleh N -1 pers.beda tiga titik (three-point
difference equations) untuk N+1 variabel tak
diketahui yaitu Φ
0

1
,…, Φ
N
.

Syarat batas
Syarat batas

Syarat batas umum dapat diberikan
Syarat batas umum dapat diberikan
sbb:
sbb:
0 1 1 , 0 0 0 , 0
S a a · + φ φ
N N N N N N N
S a a · +
− −
φ φ
, 1 1 ,

Solusi ‘pers.differensial 3-titik’
Solusi ‘pers.differensial 3-titik’

Persamaan terakhir yang kita
Persamaan terakhir yang kita
dapatkan adalah
dapatkan adalah
S A · ⋅φ
Lebih eksplisitnya

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
⋅ ⋅

− − 1
3
2
1
1
3
2
1
11 11
11 11 11
11 11
0 0 0
0 0
0
0 0
N N
S
S
S
S
a a
a a a
a a
     



φ
φ
φ
φ


Matrik tridiagonal dapat langsung Matrik tridiagonal dapat langsung
dipecahkan dengan eliminasi Gaussian. dipecahkan dengan eliminasi Gaussian.
Sehingga diperoleh matriks berikut : Sehingga diperoleh matriks berikut :

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
− − 1
3
2
1
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
1 0 0 0
0
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
N N
A
A
A
α
α
α
α
φ
φ
φ
φ
 


dimana
1 1 , ,
1 ,
− −
+
+
·
n n n n n
n n
n
A a a
a
A
1 , 1
2 , 1
1
a
a
A ·
1 1 , ,
1 1 ,
− −
− −


·
n n n n n
n n n n
n
A a a
a S α
α
1 , 1
1
1
a
s
· α


Maka, nilai fluks diperoleh dengan
Maka, nilai fluks diperoleh dengan
substitusi kembali, dan diperoleh :
substitusi kembali, dan diperoleh :
1 1 − −
·
n N
α φ
2 1 2 2 1 2 2 − − − − − − −
+ − · + − ·
N N N N N N N
A A α α α φ φ
dst,

Dekomposisi LU
Dekomposisi LU

Secara formal yang telah dilakukan adalah Secara formal yang telah dilakukan adalah
dekomposisi LU berikut dekomposisi LU berikut

,
`

.
|
⋅ ⋅ ⋅

,
`

.
|
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

⋅ −
⋅ −

·
1 0 0 0
0
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 0
0 ) ( 0
0 0 ) (
0 0 0
3
2
1
2 32 33 32
1 21 22 21
11

  
A
A
A
A a a a
A a a a
a
A
Sehingga penyelesaiannya sebagai berikut
S U L A · ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ φ φ
α φ · · ⋅

S L U
1
α φ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅
− − − 1 1 1
U S L U A
Forward
elimination
Back
substitution

Perhitungan Kritikalitas
Perhitungan Kritikalitas

Sekarang kita beralih kepada
Sekarang kita beralih kepada
perhitungan yang sangat
perhitungan yang sangat
penting, yaitu tingkat kritikalitas
penting, yaitu tingkat kritikalitas
suatu sistem nuklir dengan
suatu sistem nuklir dengan
mengetahui
mengetahui
komposisi bahan
komposisi bahan

dan
dan
geometri
geometri
nya.
nya.

Pers.Difusi
Pers.Difusi

Persamaan Difusi yang harus
Persamaan Difusi yang harus
dipecahkan,misalnya (pada kasus
dipecahkan,misalnya (pada kasus
sederhana)
sederhana)
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
r S r r r D
a
· Σ + ∇ − φ φ
( ) r r r r D
f a
φ υ φ φ Σ · Σ + ∇ − ) ( ) ( ) (
2

Pada perhitungan kritikalitas sumber
hanya diberikan dari reaksi fisi

Mencari Kesetimbangan
Mencari Kesetimbangan

Untuk menentukan komposisi agar
Untuk menentukan komposisi agar
diperoleh kesetimbangan maka
diperoleh kesetimbangan maka
diberikanlah koefisien k berikut
diberikanlah koefisien k berikut
( ) r
k
r r r D
f a
φ υ φ φ Σ · Σ + ∇ −
1
) ( ) ( ) (
2

Cara lain … dengan menganggap v
variabel, dimana keadaan kritis dicapai
pada nilai v tertentu yaitu v
C
( ) r r r r D
f C a
φ υ φ φ Σ · Σ + ∇ − ) ( ) ( ) (
2

Hubungannya…
C
k
υ
υ
·

Perhitungan Kritikalitas
Perhitungan Kritikalitas

Secara sederhana persamaan yang
Secara sederhana persamaan yang
akan dipecahkan berbentuk
akan dipecahkan berbentuk
φ φ ⋅ · ⋅ F
k
M
1
⋅ Σ + ⋅ ∇ − ≡ ⋅ ) (
2
r D M
a
⋅ Σ · ⋅ ) (r F
f
υ
dengan
Operator ‘destruksi’
Operator ‘sumber’

Metoda iterasi
Metoda iterasi

Solusi dilakukan dengan metoda iterasi Solusi dilakukan dengan metoda iterasi
berikut, diawali dengan memberi sumber berikut, diawali dengan memberi sumber
awal dan k tebakan. awal dan k tebakan.
) ( ) (
) 0 (
r S F r S ≅ ⋅ ≡ φ
Lalu tentukan flux Φ
(1)
sbb :
) 0 (
k k ≅
) 0 (
) 1 (
) 1 ( ) 1 ( 2 ) 1 (
1
) ( S
k
r D M
a
· ⋅ Σ + ⋅ ∇ − ≡ ⋅ φ φ φ
Dengan hasil diatas dapat kita hitung sumber
dan k baru sbb
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
φ υ φ
f
F S Σ · ⋅ ·

Bagan Algoritma
Bagan Algoritma
Input geometri dan
komposisi bahan
Tebak sumber
awal (S
(0)
) dan k
(0)
) 1 (
) (
) 1 (
1
+ +
·
n
n
n
F
k
M φ φ
) 1 ( ) 1 ( + +
⋅ ·
n n
F S φ


+
+

) (
1
) (
) ( 3
) (
) 1 ( 3
) 1 (
r rS d
k
r rS d
k
n
n
n
n
1
) (
) 1 ( ) (
ε <


n
n n
k
k k
2
) (
) 1 ( ) (
ε <


n
n n
S
S S
Keff
No
Yes
Iterasi
luar
Iterasi
dalam


Tim Java [Arya dan Sinta
Tim Java [Arya dan Sinta
AW,Aniq)
AW,Aniq)

Tim Visual Basic [Elfrida,Utaja]
Tim Visual Basic [Elfrida,Utaja]

Tim Fortran [Marsodi, Sangadji]
Tim Fortran [Marsodi, Sangadji]

Tim MATLAB
Tim MATLAB
[Mike,Entin,Wahyu,Dinan]
[Mike,Entin,Wahyu,Dinan]

Eksplisit ‘Code programming’
Eksplisit ‘Code programming’

Input
Input

Solver
Solver

Output
Output

Input
Input

K[i] Array Bil.riil K-awal
Fl[n,i] Array 2-D bil.riil Fluks awal Perhitungan

D[n] Array 1-D bil.riil Neutron per fisi
pla[n], plf[n],
D[n]
Array 1-D Bil.riil Pen.lintang
absorpsi,fisi,
konstanta difusi
Material

H Bil.riil Lebar partisi
L Bil.riil Panjang bahan Geometri
INPUT

Solver
Solver

Iterasi dalam
Iterasi dalam
inloop(
inloop(

Iterasi luar
Iterasi luar


Untuk memantapkan
Untuk memantapkan
pemahaman kita, mari kita
pemahaman kita, mari kita
simak penjelasan untuk hal
simak penjelasan untuk hal
yang sama dari pengembang
yang sama dari pengembang
MCNP F.Brown dari Los Alamos
MCNP F.Brown dari Los Alamos
National Laboratory.
National Laboratory.




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