Cellular Concept

-System Design Fundamentals Part 2
Udhay Prakash Lecturer, ECE Dept., JNTUH uday3prakash@gmail.com

Content for discussion
• Interference and System capacity
– Co-channel and adjacent channel interference

• Power control to reduce interference • Trunking and Grade of Service (gos) • Techniques to improve capacity in cellular systems
– Cell splitting, sectoring and microcell concept

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Approaches to Cope with Increasing Capacity
• • • • Cellular concept Frequency Reuse Adding new channels Frequency borrowing – frequencies are taken from adjacent cells by congested cells. Trunked radio system- on demand access to pool of resources; follows statistical approach in resource allocation. Cell splitting – cells in areas of high usage can be split into smaller cells Cell sectoring – cells are divided into a number of wedgeshaped sectors, each with their own set of channels Microcells – antennas move to buildings, hills, and lamp posts
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Signal propagation ranges
• Transmission range • Detection range
– communication possible – low error rate
– detection of the signal possible – no communication possible – signal may not be detected – signal adds to the background noise
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sender

transmission
detection interference distance

• Interference range

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Frequency Reuse & interference
• Interference can be caused by a variety of factors.
• Higher interference, lower the call quality. • Frequency re-use distance -distance between two identical frequencies in a re-use pattern. • Lower the frequency reuse distance, more the available network capacity.
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Interference & System Capacity
• Interference limits the maximum value of frequency reuse and the traffic handling capacity. • Sources of interferences:

– another mobile in the same cell, – a call in progress in a neighbouring cell, – Other base stations operating in the same frequency band, – any non-cellular system which inadvertently leaks energy into the cellular frequency band, …
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Interference
• Interference in
– voice channels leads to cross talk. – control channels leads to missed/blocked calls. – Co-channel & Adjacent channel interferences

• Cellular system interferences

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Interference
• Co-channel Interference (C/I) • Cellular networks are more often limited by problems caused by interference rather than by signal strength problems. • Co-channel interference is caused by the use of a frequency close to the exact same frequency. • The former will interfere with the latter, leading to the terms interfering frequency (I) and carrier frequency (C).

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Co-channel Interference
• Interference among cells using same set of frequencies, in a cellular system.

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Co-channel Interference
• It can’t be combated by increasing power level, as it further increases the interference. • Solution: physically separating co-channel cells by a minimum distance to provide sufficient isolation due to propagation.

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Co-channel interference & capacity
• When all the cell sizes and transmitted powers are identical, then

co-channel interference becomes a function of radius of the cell
(R) and the distance between centres of the nearest co-channel cells (D).

• For hexagonal geometry, co-channel reuse ratio is

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Smaller N is greater capacity

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Co-channel cells for 7-cell reuse

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Adjacent channel interference (C/A)
• Adjacent frequencies (A), that is frequencies shifted 200kHz from the carrier frequency (C), must be avoided in the same cell and preferably in neighboring cells also. • Although adjacent frequencies are at different frequencies to the carrier frequency they can still cause interference and quality problems. • Adjacent channel interference is caused due to:
– Interfering channels from the neighboring cells. – Interfering channels from the same cell.
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Example to avoid adjacent channel interference- AMPS Duopoly Channels

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Channel Capacity

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Channel Capacity…

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Radio Trunking
 Trunking stands for sharing.  Whenever resources are in short supply, they will have to be shared. • Allow a large number (n) of users to share the relatively small number of channels in a cell (or a sector) by providing access to each user, on demand, from a pool of available channels. • Exploit the statistical behaviour of users. • A fixed number of telephone lines and radio channels are installed in base and are shared by large number of remote/ mobile subscribers.
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Trunking
• Each user is allocated a channel on a per call basis, and upon termination of the call, the previously occupied channel is immediately returned to the pool of available channels. • First trunked radio standard introduced was analog MPT 1327 from ROHDE & SCHWARZ. • An example of digital trunking system is the TETRA (TErrestrial Trunked RAdio). • Advantage of Digital Trunking System over Analog Trunking System:
– More reliable Flexible – Have connectivity with internet – Low noise

• Disadvantages of Digital Trunking System over Analog Trunking System:
– lower coverage range as compared with Analog Trunking System

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Trunking- terminology

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Trunking- terminology
• Setup time: Time required to allocate a trunked radio channel to a requested user. • Blocked Call: Call which cannot be completed at time of request, due to congestion. • Grade of Service (gos):
– The blocked call may be denied or access to resources, and thereby , called lost call or delayed call system, respectively. – Measure of congestion which is specified as the probability of a call being blocked. – Measure of ability of a user to access a trunked system, during the busiest hour. – gos of 2% means 2 out of 100 calls will be blocked due to channel occupancy during the busiest hour.
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Erlang B formula

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Kendall Notation- A/S/s/c/p/D
 To describe characteristics of the queuing systems.  First letter (A)-arrival process description
 M stands for Markovian inter-arrivals, or memoryless arrival process  GI (or G) for general (any distribution) independent arrivals  MAP for arrivals driven by a Markovian Arrival Process)
M stands for Markovian service, G for general (any distribution) service, PH for phase-type service

 Second letter (S)- Service time distribution
  

 Third letter (s)- No.of servers in the system ; can be any integer ≥1.
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Kendall Notation- A/S/s/c/p/D
 Fourth letter(c) - Queue capacity (c≥0).  Fifth letter (p)- System population, i.e., the maximum no.of jobs(calls) that can arrive in the queue.

 If this argument is missing, then, by default, the queue capacity is infinity.

 Sixth Letter(D)- Queuing discipline
 

If this argument is missing then, by default, the system population is infinity. FIFO (first come first serve), LIFO (last come first serve), or any other queuing discipline. If this argument is missing, then, by default, the queuing discipline is FIFO.

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M/M/m/m system

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Channel capacity calculation & Erlang B formula

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Erlang B Trunking GOS

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Example 1

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Example 1a

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Example 1b

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Erlang C
• The second type of trunking system is the one which employs a queue, to hold calls which are blocked.– Blocked calls delayed system • This trunking system uses Erlang C

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Erlang C

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Cell Splitting
• Process of subdividing a congested cell into smaller cells, each with its own base station and a corresponding reduction in antenna height and transmitter power. • Frequency reuse  large cell – small cells • Cell splitting  Small cell – micro cells • Coexists with frequency reuse scheme, maintaining reuse distance for required S/I. • Enhances capacity by increasing spectral efficiency
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Cell Splitting
Cells are split to add channels with no new spectrum usage. Thereby, results an increase in capacity.

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Cell Splitting
• In the cell splitting process,

• Let each new cell carry the same maximum traffic load of the old cell, then
• Also, the power levels of new microcells must be reduced.

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Cell Splitting-Types
• Permanent Splitting
– Preplanned cell splitting – Preplanned resource division – During splitting, some call are lost. So service cut is done in lowest traffic hours (eg: mid-night).
– Real-time cell splitting – Channels are divided into two groups, with umbrellas cell concept. – More complex algorithms required for splitting during peak traffic hours. – Antenna Down-tilting to reduce coverage area of base stations
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• Dynamic Splitting

• Initially, Less channels allocated to microcells. Later, as traffic increases, more channels of old cell are assigned to micro cells.

Cell Sectoring
o Another method of improving spectral efficiency. o Dividing the cell into parts, called sectors. o Deserves no new base station installation. o Involves antenna downtilting, reduction in beam focussing and reducing the power transmissions. o Intracell Handoff takes place among the directional antennas of same cell.
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Sectoring improves S/I

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Ways of Cell Sectoring
Original cell site is not used Original cell site is used

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In-building deployment is the next great growth phase

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The Zone Cell Concept

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Zone Cell Concept

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Conclusions
• Cellular concept and frequency reuse are used to increase spectral efficiency. • Cellular design techniques (cell splitting, sectoring and coverage zone approach) are used to further enhance the system capacity. • Cell splitting • Sectoring
– allows orderly growth of cellular system. – Increases number of base stations.

• Zone microcell concept- distributes cell coverage and extends cell boundary . • These three techniques are coexisting to increase the system capacity.
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– uses directional antennas to control interference and frequency of channels. – Increases the number of base station antennas. – Suffers the trunking inefficiencies, and increases computational load on MSC

References
• Theodore S. Rappaport, Wirelesss CommunicationsPrinciples and Practice, 2e, PHI, 2002. • William C.Y. Lee, Wireless & Cellular Telecommunications, 3e, ISBN:0-07-143686-3, Tata McGraw Hills. • Kendall notation, “http://www.cs.wm.edu/~riska/PhD-thesishtml/node6.html”.

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