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EEMG

NTPC-RAMAGUNDAM

Why Feed Water Heaters?


1950 1965 : Marked advancement in Rankine cycle Thermal performance due to feed-heating systems. The average temperature at which heat is added increases So Rankine cycle efficiency increases.

DEMINISHING RETURNS 1

Locus of optimum points 10 6 1/4

Fr.
Impr Heat 2 3

1/3
1/2

Con sum ption

1 HEATER

0,0

Fractional Enthalpy rise

H P Heater
Drain inlet FW outlet

Extraction steam inlet

Drain outlet

FW inlet

Heat Transfer Pattern in H P Heater

Temperature

Extraction Steam

Feed Water

Tube Surface
Drain Cooling Condensing Desuperheating

Thermal profile in different zones of H P HEATER Sensible heat transfer Latent heat transfer Sensible heat transfer

Extn
Ts Drain DC A FW Drain Cooling Zone Condensing Zone Desuper heating Zone FW TTD

Why Performance Testing?


Prior to outage- to plan maintenance Post outage- Evaluate effect of work done Normal operation
Trending HR deviation accounting Optimize operation
FW temp 1C 2.2 kcal/kwhr (I) 3336 Rs/day 1.34 kcal/kwhr (II) 4299 Rs/day

KPI
TTD DCA TR PRESSURE DROP

Terminal Temperature Difference


TTD = TS - FW OUTLET TEMP TS saturation temperature corresponding to shell pressure

Thermal profile in different zones of H P HEATER Sensible heat transfer Latent heat transfer Sensible heat transfer

Extn
Ts Drain DC A FW Drain Cooling Zone Condensing Zone Desuper heating Zone FW TTD

High TTD
Causes
Tube fouling/Plugging Non condensable gases (Air) blanketing Flooding
Tube leakage Level control

Effects
Bled steam flow Heater concerned Subsequent heater Turbine steam flow

Low shell pressure Excessive venting

Drain Cooling Approach


DCA = Drain out let temp - FW inlet temp

Thermal profile in different zones of H P HEATER Sensible heat transfer Latent heat transfer Sensible heat transfer

Extn
Ts Drain DC A FW Drain Cooling Zone Condensing Zone Desuper heating Zone FW TTD

High DCA
Causes
Tube fouling/Plugging Low water level
LCV malfunction

Effects
Bled steam flow Heater concerned Subsequent heater Turbine steam flow

Drain cooler inlet not submerged

Temperature Rise
TR= FW outlet temp - FW inlet temp

Low TR
Causes
TTD high DCA high

Effects
Bled steam flow Heater concerned Subsequent heater Turbine steam flow

How Performance Deviates?


Input parameters / process variables
FW inlet temp/ Extrn Steam inlet Pre & temp

Deterioration of equipment or system itself


Tube failure, exfoliation, blocking of tubes

Generic problems
Malfunction of one of its components like DCV

Design problems
System resistance, size or capacity

HEATER PERFORMANCE DETERIORATION


Air accumulation Steam side fouling Water side fouling Drainage defects Parting plane leakage

Air accumulation
Increased TTD Possible elevation of steam-to-heater temperature Reduced temperature rise of feed water or condensate. 0.5 % steam is venting inevitable for good venting

Steam side fouling


Progressive increase of TTD Drain temperature unaffected Reduced feed water temperature rise Eventual tube failure due to mechanical weakening Accumulation of debris in the heater shell.

Water side fouling


Gradual increase of TTD. Oil
LPT bearing oil through seals Deposition occurs in HP heaters, worst hit at highest pressure heater.

Drainage defects
Damaged flsahbox internals Reduced orifice opening Enlarged orifice opening Heater drain CV/ bypass valve malfunction.

Parting plane leakage


Short circuiting of FW TTD high DCA high TR less

ENERGY AND EFFICIENCY MANAGEMENT GROUP HP HEATERS PERFORMANCE TEST

UNIT : I S.No DESCRIPTION READINGS: 1 UNIT LOAD 2 FW PRESSURE 3 FW INLET TEMPERATURE 4 FW OUTLET TEMPERATURE 5 SHELL PRESSURE 6 EXT STEAM TEMPERATURE 7 DRAIN OUTLET TEMP. 8 DRIP LEVEL 9 FW FLOW UNITS MW KSC Deg. C Deg. C KSC Deg. C Deg. C mm T/Hr HPH 5 DESIGN TEST 200 190 189.33 212.23 19.94 194.33 584 203 177.3 190.7 213.9 20.00 473.3 195.9 218 558

6th July 05 HPH 6 DESIGN TEST 200 190 212.23 240.08 33.88 217.23 584 203 177.3 213.9 247.7 38.10 355.8 215.8 266 558

CALCULATIONS: 10 SATN. TEMP.OF STEAM Deg. C 11 FW I/L ENTHALPY Kcal/kg 12 FW O/L ENTHALPY Kcal/kg 13 EXT ENTHALPY Kcal/kg 14 DRIP O/L ENTHALPY Kcal/kg 15 DRIP I/L ENTHALPY Kcal/kg 16 DRIP I/L FLOW T/hr 17 TTD (10-4) Deg. C 18 DRAIN APPROACH (7-3) Deg. C 10 NET HEAT LOAD 10^6 KCAL 11 SUB COOLING (10-7) Deg. C 12 EXtn STEAM FLOW T/hr 13 FW `DT' (4-3) Deg. C OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. HPH-5 & 6 performance is satisfactory.

211.2 194.23 218.36 813.40 197.61 222.47 -1.00 5.0 14.09 16.9 22.89 22.9

213.9 195.51 220.03 814.15 199.28 220.93 39.41 -0.02 5.2 13.68 17.98 22.25 23.2

239.6 218.36 248.53 731.72 222.47 -0.50 5.0 17.62 22.3 34.60 27.9

247.9 220.03 256.95 743.71 220.93 0.15 1.9 20.61 32.05 39.41 33.8

EEMG HPH PERFORMANCE TEST REPORT UNIT IV S.No DESCRIPTION UNITS DESIGN HPH 5 HPH 5A HPH 5B DESIGN HPH 6 1 UNIT LOAD MW 500 513 500 2 FW PRESSURE KSC 218 203.4 203.4 218.0 3 FW INLET TEMPERATURE Deg. C 166.7 173.5 173.6 208.1 4 FW OUTLET TEMPERATURE Deg. C 208.1 216.2 212.7 253.7 5 DRIP O/L FLOW (INDICATION) T/Hr 122.35 148 135 45.27 6 EXT STEAM PRESSURE KSC 18.63 21.00 19.89 43.00 7 EXT STEAM TEMPERATURE Deg. C 429 411.5 411.5 342.6 8 DRAIN OUTLET TEMP. Deg. C 171.5 183.4 181.4 212.9 9 DRIP LEVEL mm -10 -6 10 FW FLOW T/Hr 770 771.0 771.0 770.0 CALCULATIONS: 1 SATN. TEMP.OF STEAM Deg. C 207.8 216.3 213.6 253.4 2 FW I/L ENTHALPY Kcal/kg 171.2 178.0 178.1 214.2 3 FW O/L ENTHALPY Kcal/kg 214.2 222.7 219.0 263.8 4 EXT ENTHALPY Kcal/kg 791.3 781.5 781.9 733.5 5 DRIP O/L ENTHALPY Kcal/kg 173.5 186.0 183.9 217.8 6 DRIP I/L ENTHALPY Kcal/kg 217.8 225.4 225.0 7 DRIP I/L FLOW T/hr 67.7 72.9 8 TTD Deg. C -0.3 0.1 0.9 -0.3 9 DRAIN APPROACH Deg. C 4.8 9.9 7.8 4.8 10 NET HEAT LOAD 10^6 KCAL 33.146 34.49 31.53 38.17 11 SUB COOLING Deg. C 32.9 32.2 12 EXtn STEAM FLOW T/hr 48.3 57.91 52.72 74.05 13 FW `DT' Deg. C 41.4 42.7 39.1 45.6 PREVIOUS TEST RESULTS 9/5/05 1 TTD Deg. C -0.3 0.2 1.2 -0.3 2 DRAIN APPROACH Deg. C 4.8 7.6 8.3 4.8 3 NET HEAT LOAD 10^6 KCAL 33.1 31.8 31.2 38.2 4 SUB COOLING Deg. C 33.1 32.7 5 EXtn STEAM FLOW T/hr 48.3 52.8 52.1 74.1 6 FW `DT' Deg. C 41.4 40.5 39.8 45.6 OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. HPH-5B FW DT is less and DCA is more.Its performance is to be observed.

RAMAGUNDAM DATE: 9-Jul-05 HPH 6A HPH 6B 513 202.8 202.8 216.2 212.7 257.1 256.9 134.9 126.0 45.1 45.0 350.6 350.6 219.8 219.5 -1 5 771.0 771.0 257.7 222.7 267.6 736.8 225.4 0.6 3.6 34.61 37.91 67.66 40.9 0.3 6.3 36.3 38.2 71.9 44.2 0.7 6.8 37.31 38.07 72.89 44.2 0.4 7.8 37.4 38.1 74.0 45.5 257.6 219.0 267.4 736.9 225.0

Heat transferred
Q= U* A* LMTD LMTD = (ITD-TTD) / Loge (ITD/TTD) Heat Balance Extrn steam flow*( h ext h drainout) = Qfw *( h fwout- h fwin) Qdrainin *(h drainout- h drainin)