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Presented by: Dhananjay Kumar Jaipuria institute of Management, Noida

Research Objectives. Methodology. Defining the strengths and weaknesses. Analysis of data. Interpretation of data. Related Behavioral Models. Summary.

What is..
The quality of being strong, ability to do
or bear , whether physical , mental or moral. It is the power to force, it is the quality of being strong.

deterination/deanalytical teamplayer social/extrovert concentration dicated 3% 4% 8% 4% 9% confidence optimistic 9% 5% creativity 4% planning 2% patience 8%

hard working 14%

fast flexibility learner 12% honesty 9% 9%

What is Weakness?
 Is a condition or quality of being weak
either due to personal defect or failing . A special fondness or inclination towards something. It can be a flaw or a weak point.


Research objective
To understand the psychology of the students

by analyzing their strengths and weaknesses.

Research Methodology

Approach to the study

quantitative study was conducted. Primary data was collected. Respondents were asked to write down their five strengths and weaknesses .

Secondary data was collected through internet to further study the behavioural aspects of data.

Stages in the Study
Stage 1 Collection  
Collection of data.

Students were asked to write down five strengths and weaknesses .

 Data collected is


Stage 2 : Categorization  Categorization of data.  Common strengths and weaknesses are categorize through tally
bars and by making frequency table.

Stages in the Study

Stage 3 Analysis 
Analysis of the data.

 Analysis tools used for the data:Mean, median, quartile deviations.

Respondent Profile The Respondent profile was as follows :
 Male/Females  Students  SEC  21



– 29 years. size : n = 23

 Sample

 Mean:-the avg. strength of

 Mean:-the Average

the sample students are patience , social.  Q1(lower quartile):-In our case less than 25% students strengths are concentration, team player, creativity.  Median(Q2):- 50% of the students strengths are patience , social/ extrovert.

weakness of the sample is Lack of time management.  Q1(lower quartile):-Less than 25% students have the weaknesses Lack of concentration , inflexible , pessimistic.  Median(Q2):-50% of the student weaknesses are impatience and lack of planning.

Q3(upper quartile):-

Q3(upper quartile):-

more than 75% of the students strengths are confidence , fast learner, dedicated/determinatio n and honesty. Mode : the most occurring strength from the data is hard working.

More than 75% of the student weaknesses are Introvert/ lack of communication skills. Mode : the most occurring weaknesses are lack of confidence , emotional.

Comprises: • Characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that make a person unique. •Arises from within the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life. Components: •Consistency •Psychological & physiological •Impact behaviors and actions •Multiple expressions

CONFIDENCE:  Described as a state of being certain.  Feeling of trust or belief in yourself and your abilities.  Freedom from doubt; hopefulness that events will be favorable.

SOCIAL , EXTROVERT , GOOD COMMUNICATION SKILLS:  It always refers to the interaction of organisms with other organisms and to their collective co-existence.  Whether the interaction is voluntary or involuntary  Extrovert is a person who is friendly ,outgoing and who is energized by being around other people.

CREATIVE:  Is a mental and social process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts .  New associations of the creative mind between existing ideas or concepts, creativity is fueled by the process of either conscious or unconscious insight.  Creativeness is simply the act of making something new. HONESTY:  Is the human quality of communicating and acting truthfully in accordance with a sense of fairness and sincerity.  Includes all varieties of communication, both verbal and non-verbal.  Honesty implies a lack of deceit.

TEAMWORK :  A joint action by 2 or more persons' or a group, in which each person subordinates his or her individual interests and opinions to the unity and efficiency of the group."  The most effective teamwork is produced when all the individuals involved harmonize their contributions and work towards a common goal. OPTIMISM:  Optimism is the propensity to look at the bright side of any situation and expect the best possible outcome from any series of events.  People who feel optimism live their lives expecting positive outcomes and events.  Optimism is one of the cornerstones of success.

HARDWORKING:  Is a person, taking her work seriously and doing it well and rapidly.  Putting in the time required to get the job done.

DETERMINATION:  Is the free choice of one’s own acts without external compulsion, and especially as the freedom of the people  Understand to achieve anything requires faith and belief in yourself, vision, hard work, and dedication.

EMOTIONAL/SENTIMENTAL:  Insincerely emotional.  Dependent on sentiment.  Characterized by or showing sentiment. INTROVERT:  An introvert is a person who is energized by being alone and whose energy is drained by being around other people.  Introverts are more concerned with the inner world of the mind  They enjoy thinking, exploring their thoughts and feelings.

IMPATIENCE:  A lack of patience; irritation with anything that causes delay.  A restless desire for change and excitement.  A dislike of anything that causes delay.  An irritable petulant feeling. PESSIMISM:  Is a painful state of mind which negatively colours the perception of life, specially with regard to future events.  The most common example of this phenomenon is the "Is the glass half empty or half full?

WORKOHOLIC:  Is a person who is addicted to work .  The phrase does not always imply that the person actually enjoys their work, but rather simply feels compelled to do it. INFLEXIBILITY:  The quality of being rigid and rigorously severe.  The inability to change or be changed to fit changed circumstances .  Implies lack of susceptibility to persuasion. CASUAL:  Marked by lack of concern.  Without or seeming to be without plan or method. SHORT TEMPER:  Quickly arouse to anger

Factors affecting personality
Needs Social factors Cultural factors Situational factors Biological factors

1. Authoritarian Parenting In this style of parenting, children are expected to follow the strict rules established by the parents. Failure to follow such rules usually results in punishment. Authoritarian parents fail to explain the reasoning behind these rules. If asked to explain, the parent might simply reply, "Because I said so." These parents have high demands, but are not responsive to their children. These parents are obedience- and statusoriented, and expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation.

2. Authoritative Parenting • authoritative parenting style establish rules and guidelines that their children are expected to follow. • This kind of parenting style is much more democratic. • Authoritative parents are responsive to their children and willing to listen to their questions. • When children fail to meet the expectations, these parents are more nurturing and forgiving rather than punishing. • These parents monitor and impart clear standards for their children’s conduct. They are assertive, but not intrusive and restrictive. • Their disciplinary methods are supportive, rather

3. Permissive Parenting Permissive parents, sometimes referred to as indulgent parents, have very few demands to make of their children. These parents rarely discipline their children because they have relatively low expectations of maturity and self-control. Permissive parents are more responsive than they are demanding. They are nontraditional and lenient, do not require mature behavior, allow considerable self-regulation, and avoid confrontation. They are generally nurturing and communicative with their children, often taking on the status of a friend more than that of a parent.

4.Uninvolved Parenting An uninvolved parenting style is characterized by few demands, low responsiveness and little communication. While these parents fulfill the child's basic needs, they are generally detached from their child's life. In extreme cases, these parents may even reject or neglect the needs of their children.

Types of need
Primary Needs

Primary needs are based upon biological demands, such as the need for oxygen, food, and water.
Secondary Needs

Secondary needs are generally psychological, such as the need for nurturing, independence, and achievement

1.Ambition Needs Achievement: Success, accomplishment, and overcoming obstacles.
Exhibition: Shocking or thrilling other people. Recognition: Displaying achievements and

gaining social status. 2. Materialistic Needs Acquisition: Obtaining things. Construction: Creating things. Order: Making things neat and organized. Retention: Keeping things.

3.Power Needs Abasement: Confessing and apologizing. Autonomy: Independence and resistance. Aggression: Attacking or ridiculing others. Blame Avoidance: Following the rules and avoiding blame. Deference: Obeying and cooperating with others. Dominance: Controlling others. 4. Affection Needs Affiliation: Spending time with other people. Nurturance: Taking care of another person. Play: Having fun with others. 

Information Needs Cognizance: Seeking knowledge and asking

questions. Exposition: Education others.

STRENGTH INFLUENCING FACTORS Permissive Parenting, Need for Personal Admiration & ambition needs BEHAVIOURAL TRAITS Activity, risk taking ,sociability, Impulsive, expressive, responsible, reflective Extrovert


Authoritative Thoughtful, easy parenting, going, egocentric, Need for self hopeful. sufficiency & ambition needs


Permissive Social able, Parenting, need for easy-going, affection and carefree Approval, materialistic need


Authoritative parenting, need for prestige, power needs

Asserter, Supportive, self-reliant, trustworthy


Authoritative Parenting, Ambition needs, need for perfection

Generous, caring, optimistic, judgmental, competent, friendly


Authoritarian parenting, need For prestige, Materialistic needs

Understanding, reasonable, responsible, dedicated, selfdisciplined

Impatience Permissive parenting, Power needs Insecurity, Want tobe authoritativeloyal,d istrust others Rigid,insecured Stubborn, Systematic, goal oriented, short tempered Easy going, Carefree,hopeful,cont ented,playful


Uninvolved Parenting,


Permissive Parenting


Authoritarian Parenting

Serious, suspicious, Unhappy, Worried, Anxious, good observant


Authoritarian Parenting

Ego centric, Hot headed, Rigid, focused, Determined, histrionic

Johari Window

Johari Window

Johari Window

Johari Window

Trait theories

Five-factor model of personality traits

Five dimensions measured in personality tests
 Openness

(creative, daring) (reliable, hardworking) (outgoing, social) (selfless, forgiving) (anxious, worrisome)

 Conscientiousness  Extraversion

 Agreeableness  Neuroticism

Myers Briggs® type indicator (MBTI®)
highly regarded system for understanding

and interpreting personality derives most of its underpinning theory from Carl Jung's Psychological Types ideas and to a lesser extent the Four Temperaments method for understanding personality and preferred modes of behaving

The Trait Perspective
Moody Anxious Rigid Sober Pessimistic Reserved Unsociable Quiet



Touchy Restless Aggressive Excitable Changeable Impulsive Optimistic Active choleric

Hans and Sybil



phlegmatic sanguine Passive Sociable Careful Outgoing Thoughtful Talkative Peaceful Responsive Controlled Easygoing Reliable Lively Carefree Even-tempered Leadership Calm

Eysenck use two primary personality factors as axes for describing personality variation


Study on Strengths & weaknesses Personality traits. Influencing factors Respondents were 23. Age Bracket – 21 to 25 years. Data Collection- Q Sort Quantitative Analysis: Mean, median, mode, Quartiles.

 Most of the people have strength as:

Hardworking  Social  Patience  Flexibility

Have weakness as:

Lack of Confidence  Emotional instability

Cultural forces

Hereditary forces

Individual Personality

Situational Forces

Family relationship forces