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CONTENTS

:
 INTRODUCTION  GENERATION OF DATA RECORDERS  INSIDE THE BLACK-BOX  TECHNOLOGY USED FOR RECORDING & STORAGE  TRANSMISSION OF DATA  BUILT TO SURVIVE  TESTING A CSMU  UNDERWATER LOCATOR BEACON  OTHER USES FOR BLACK BOX TECHNOLOGY  RETRIEVING INFORMATION  ADVANTAGES  DISADVANTAGES  CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION
 Dr .David Warren, an Australian aviation scientist, proposed a flight recording device and by 1958 he had produced the prototype "ARL Flight Memory Unit ".  Black boxes - which are actually orange- are a group of data collection devices mounted in the tail of an aircraft.  The Black Box is a Flight Recorder used to record specific aircraft performance parameters.  With any airplane crash, there are many unanswered questions as to what brought the plane down.  Investigators turn to the airplane's flight data recorder.(FDR) and cockpit voice recorder (CVR), also known as "black boxes," for answers.  In Flight 261, the FDR contained 48 parameters of flight data, and the CVR recorded a little more than 30 minutes of conversation and other audible cockpit noises.

World’s first flight memory recorder (Black Box):

Generations of Data Recorders  First Generation -Foil Recorders  Second Generation- Tape Recorders  Third Generation- Solid State Recorders

INSIDE THE BLACK-BOX
 COCKPIT VOICE RECORDERS
 FLIGHT DATA RECORDERS

COCKPIT VOICE RECORDERS
CVR is designed to track the conversations of the flight crew.

 there are several microphones built into the cockpitt track the conversations of the flight crew.
 These microphones are also designed to track any ambient noise in the cockpit, such as switches being thrown or any knocks or thuds.  There may be up to four microphones in the plane's cockpit, each connected to the cockpit voice recorder(CVR)

 Any sounds in the cockpit are picked up by these microphones and sent to the CVR, where the recordings are digitized and stored.
 There is also another device in the cockpit, called the associated control unit
The Positions Of The Four Microphones

 Pilot’s headset

 Co-pilot’s headset
 Headset of a third crew member (if there is a third crew member)  Near the center of the cockpit, where it can pick up audio

alerts and other sounds

FLIGHT DATA RECORDERS
 The Flight Data Recorder (FDR) is designed to record the operating data from the plane’s system.

 Solid-state recorders can track more parameters than magnetic tape because they allow for a faster data flow. Solid-state FDRs can store up to25 hours of flight data.

Parameters Recorded By Most FDRs:
 Time  Pressure altitude  Airspeed  Vertical acceleration  Magnetic heading  Control-column position  Rudder-pedal position  Control-wheel position  Horizontal stabilizer  Fuel flow

Technology used for Recording and Storage:  Magnetic Tape
 Solid-State Technology

MAGNETIC TAPE

 Most of the black boxes in use today use magnetic tape, which was first introduced in the 1960s, or solid-state memory boards, which came along in the 1990s.  The Mylar tape is pulled across an electromagnetic head, which leaves a bit of data on the tape. Black-box manufacturers are no longer making magnetic tape recorders as airlines begin a full transition to solid-state technology

SOLID-STATE TECHNOLOGY
 Solid-state recorders are considered much more reliable than their magnetic-tape counterparts.  Solid state uses stacked arrays of memory chips.  Boards are about 1.75 inches (4.45 cm) in diameter and 1 inch (2.54 cm) tall.

TRANSMISSION OF DATA

 Data from both the CVR and FDR is stored on stacked memory boards inside the crash-survivable memory unit (CSMU).  All of the data collected by the airplane's sensors is sent to the flight-data acquisition unit (FDAU) at the front of the aircraft .

BUILT TO SURVIVE (CRASH-SURVIVAL MEMORY UNITS-CSMU)

 In many airline accidents, the only device that survive.

Basic protection elements are: Aluminum housing  High-temperature insulation  Stainless-steel shell  The rest of the recorders, chasis and inner components are mangled.

TESTING A CSMU
There are several tests that make up the crash survival sequence:  Pin drop  Static crush  Crash impact  Fire test  Deep-sea submersion  Salt-water submersion  Fluid immersion

UNDERWATER LOCATOR BEACON
 Black boxes are equipped with an underwater locator beacon (ULB).  Cylinder is actually a beacon.  Beacon sends out an ultrasonic pulse  submergence sensor

RETRIEVING INFORMATION

 This portable interface can allow investigators quick access to the data

on a black box.
 With solid-state recorders

OTHER USES FOR BLACK BOX TECHNOLOGY

 Automobile manufacturing
 Future aspects

Advantages of Black Box Testing:
 Allows us to carry out the majority of testing classes, most of which can be implemented solely by black box tests, i.e. load tests and availability tests.

 For testing classes that can be carried out by both white and black box tests, black box testing requires fewer resources.

Disadvantages of Black Box Testing:
 Possibility that coincidental aggregation of several errors will produce the correct response for a test case, and prevent error detection.  Absence of control of line coverage.

 There is no easy way to specify the parameters of the test cases required to improve coverage.

CONCLUSION
 From the study of Black Box we derived a information that how the information about aircraft mishap is analyzed & unanswered question is answered.

 In this study we discuss about various technology various aspects involved in black box.

REFERENCES
 www.popularmechanics.com
 www.avista.com
 www.wikipedia.com/black_box

 www.aerodynamics.com