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The ability to store and retrieve information over time.

Key Terms
• Cognition
The process of acquiring and using knowledge: thinking.

• Information Processing Theory • Reconstructive Memory

The mind is similar to a computer with input, processing, and output. Memory is stored in pieces, and later on put back together using past & present information, emotions, beliefs, bias.

Situations that require us to store material for longer periods minutes and years .Distinctions in Memory Short term memory (STM) • Small amounts of memory (5-9 bits) • Less than 1 minute (20-30 sec) Situations that require us to store the material for seconds Long Term Memory (LTM) • Information retained for intervals as brief as few minutes and as long as life time.

We must attend to it • We are selective in picking up things • So STM contains only those memories at which we pay attention to • Memory problems come with lapses in attention. – Offering Namaz – Remembering a mobile number over a phone call . • Ex.Encoding • To encode memory .

0900-78601 Telefun Number • Partly Semantic – Some Meaningful Association in mind ex.Cont. Encoding • Visual – Mental Picture of Digits ex. . • Rhearsal – Repeating the Information again and again • After the info goes out of sight only the acoustic code is left. Miles Stones • Acoustic – sounds of the names of Digits ex.

the older ones get replaced. However rehearsal may prevent displacement by preventing the encoding of new itmes.Storage • Short Term memory has a very little capacity 7 items 2 less 2 more • A sort of mental box with roughly seven slots • When new items come in . • Principal of displacement • Information at the forefront of our memory must give way to newer information. .

Example Blue green Yellow Purple Orange Black Gray Burgandi Pink Lemon Brown terracotta .



Retrieval • Intuition says access to short term memory is immediate • But since retrieval requires a search of short term memory in which items are examined one at a time so retrieval is one after the other. .

Experiment Sternburg (1966) • Audience were provided with Memory List that they should hold in Short Term memory and each ML contains less than 7 digits. 5 Memory List 6 Probe If Answer is Yes _ Correct No _ Incorrect Several Memory Lists were shown every trial a new ML was presented to audience and followed by the Probe. 1. 3. The decision time increased each additional item takes about 40 milli seconds to retrieve the Memory List or another Probe . Memory list is then removed from view and Probe Digit is presented several seconds later • Ex. 6.

Long Term Memory • Information retained for intervals as brief as few minutes and as long as a life time .

based on meanings of items that we hear or see.Fast Problem ----.e. Quick ----.Encoding • In Long Term Memory the code is not visual or acoustic it is semantic in nature i.Trouble Deficit ----.Loss Sentence “Because of bad behavior Raza was given zero in Class Participation and for that he failed” After few hours…… “Raza failed due to zero marks in Class Participation” . • Ex.

Zabist. SMCHS.Cont. Encoding • Relationship or Linkages Ex. Hyderabad. La Mosh. Cat . Some Song Some weather Some Smell • We try to remember few words that are entirely different having no connection but we still try to create a sentence to give it a meaningful relationship Ex.

. cafeteria. clouds • Try to imagine it…….Exercise •Create a link between these words Seaside. Duck. Blocks. Australia.

Retreival • Forgetting a LTM means loss of access to information rather than from a loss of information. • Poor memory is a retrieval failure and not a storage failure. • Its like finding a book in library. More useful . • Recognition Test v/s Recall Test.

.Experiment CRAIR 1977 • Words were shown – asked to make sentence • Word Flower • Short sentence Long sentence She likes flowers Flowers have vibrant colors that’s why she likes flowers When we add more meaning to a word by making long sentences the chances of retrieval are more.

happens because of Panic • Tip of the tongue Experience • Hypnosis .Retrieval Failures • You remember for an exam and your forgot at the time of paper --.

11479363 1147– 9363 3492 3:49:2 • Imaginary encoding we remember better when we change the words in to image • Elobration and encoding When we add more details to a word or instance we remember it better • Context and retrieval • Mentally restoring the context seems to make you remember things you cannot remember otherwise. numbers better if we divide them and recode the string in to equal sets or in the format of time – Ex.Improving Memory • Memory Span We remember words . .

Causes of Forgetting • • • • Decay Theory * Applies to STM. can’t find it • Retrieval Failure * • Inability to bring information into working memory • Tip of the tongue phenomenon • Amnesia * • Biological cause . not LTM Encoding failure * Information not stored properly. head injury .g. e. disease.

• Interference * • Retroactive Interference – new learning impairs older memory • Proactive Interference – Previous learning interferes with new memory. cont. • Motivated Forgetting * • Inability to encode or retrieve memories due to anxiety.Forgetting. .