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Lesson No.

15

Week No. 07
Lesson Name Fasteners

FASTENERS
The act of holding together the different parts of a machine is called fastening. Fastening can be of three kinds; 1. Temporary 2. Semi-permanent 3. Permanent.

 Temporary Fastening:- When parts of a machine are joined in such a way that these can be dismantled or reassembled again easily, it is called temporary fastening. The device used are;

shank. Bolt is made of a thin rod of metal. On the remaining part.This is one of the most widely used fasteners. . They are made of Mild Steel.Head Shank Diameter 1  Bolt:. Diameter of bolt is measured at threads as shown in figure. Different types of Heads are made to fix them. threads are cut. Nuts are used with bolts to fasten any component.

Some portion below the ‘T’ head is kept square. This bolt is used for clamping machine shaft. 4 . Taper headless bolt:. Whole shank is made taper of 3/8” TPF. 4. Hexagonal head bolt:. 2.This bolt with ‘T’ head is used with machine table.1. ‘T’ Head bolt:.This is the most commonly used bolt which is shown in figure above.This bolt does not have head.

6. There is a recessed groove in which a set screw is used to lock the nut. 7.Tab washers can be used for locking the nuts which are located near an edge or corner. Locking plate:.This is a hexagonal nut with the lower part made cylindrical on the cylindrical surface. 8. .For preventing the nut from loosening locking plates are fixed on the outside of the hexagonal nut. Tab washer:. Grooved nut:.

10. The stiff resistance offered by the washer against the surface of the nuts serves to prevent loosening.In this arrangement of locking a hole is drilled for accommodating the lug. Locking-washer with lug:.Spring washers are available with a single or double coil. Spring washer:. The movement of the nut is prevented by folding the washer against the nut. .9. These are placed under a nut in the assembly as washers.

Square neck is provided below this head which restrict the bolt to be turned. 6. 6 . They are threaded to whole length. Hook bolt:.Head of this bolt is made hook shaped. Eye bolt:. This bolt is also used for lifting machines and components. A hook or bar is passed through its hole to lift any component. This bolt is used for lifting machines.Head of this bolt is made round shaped by bending the round bar.5 5.

Snug is provided below this head which restrict the bolt to be turned during the fitting. Cup / Round head bolt:. . Cheese head bolt:. This bolt is used generally for wood working.7 7.Head of this bolt is made cylindrical shaped. A pin is fastened below the head to lock the position of bolt. Fastening offered by this bolt is comparatively weak. This bolt is used where a spanner can not be used due to narrow space. 8 8.Head of this bolt is made round.

.Head of this bolt is made countersunk. Counter head bolt:. This bolt is also used where the head of bolt above the surface is objectionable. Square snug is provided below the head to lock it.9 9.

2.Nuts are used in conjunction with Bolts to clamp the components. . Hexagonal nut:.Square bolts are provided with square nuts. 1. Square nut:. In coach building mostly square nuts are used. Thin hexagonal nuts are used as lock-nuts.NUT  Nut:. Nuts of different types are used depending on the requirement of the assembly.This is the most commonly used type of nut in structural and machine tool building.

This ring holds the nut tightly on the bolt and serves as a locking device. 3 Stud 4. . 5 Self locking (Simmond lock-nut) nut:This nut has an internal groove cut in which a fiber or nylon ring is inserted. Slotted nuts are hexagonal shaped throughout.3.These nuts have special provision in the form of slots for fixing split pins for locking the nuts. the top part of the nut is cylindrical in shape. T-Nut 4 5. In the case of castle nuts.T-nuts are used along with studs on machine tools for fixing holding devices or work pieces. Slotted and castle nut:. T-nut:.

Cap nut:. They are available as Type-A & Type-B. used in Hacksaw. They are suitable in places where finger tightening is enough. 8. These are available as hot forged / cast and cold forged.6 6. Example of this nut is. Knurled nut:.Knurled nuts (thumb nuts) are used in place where frequent adjustment is required. Wing nut:. 7. 7 8 .Cap-nuts are used to protect the bolt end threads from damages and they also act as protector for safe working. They also provides a decorative appearance.These nuts are used in light duty assembly which require frequent removal and fixing.

10.9 9. They have projected legs on one side. 10 11 . face wrench. pin wrench. 11. The collar act like a washer and is useful where frequent tightening and loosening is necessary. etc. Hexagonal weld nut:. Hexagonal nut with collar:. This provides additional bearing surface in assembly. Round nut:.These nuts are used for welding on plate work.These nuts have a machined collar on one end.These nuts are used with special types of wrenches to turn it like hook wrench.

. Plain / Flat washer:. Plain washers are available as Machined or Punched washer. thickness and the bore diameter are proportional to the diameter of the bolt.It is a common practice to provide washer under the nuts in bolted joints.WASHER  Washer:. prevent loosening of nuts due to vibrations. The diameter. 1.These washer are used for bolting assemblies with flat surface. They help to increase the frictional grip. prevent damage to the work piece and distributes force over a larger area.

etc. These washer help the bolt head or nut to seat square to the hole.2.Spring washers are used under nuts to prevent slackening of the nuts due to vibration. 3. Spring washer:. they create tension between the bolt and nut. They are made of spring steel and when compressed.These are used in structural assemblies with tapered surface like inside of I-beams. . channels. Taper washer:.

5. cut and twisted. Tab washer:. Toothed lock washer:.These washers have serrations.These washers are used for locking the nuts which are to be fitted near the corner of components. this washer exerts friction on both the contacting surfaces.4. Long tab is bent along the corner and part of rounded portion is bent against a side of hexagonal nut. This prevents the nuts from slackening. When placed between the nut and the assembly. .

Screws used in electrical work are made of Brass. Hexagonal socket head cap screw:. 2.Screws are used when a nut can not be used in the assembly and the component in the assembly has a threaded hole to receive the screw. These screws are made of steel. .SCREW  Screw:.These are used when the projection of the screw head will not be an obstruction in the assembly. Hexagonal head screw:. 1.These are used when the projection of the screw head above the surface is to be avoided.

Countersink head screw:.3.The projection of screw head above the assembly is avoided.Square head screws are used in place where there is frequent removal and refitting of the assembly. 4. . They are tightened to a higher torque using a wrench. Square head screw:. They are capable of aligning the matching component correctly with the threaded hole.

which is an integral part of the screw head. and cup points.Square head screws are sometimes provided with a collar which acts as washer. Square head screw with collar:. full dog. Hexagonal socket set screws:. cone. 6. They are flat. The purpose of this collar is to protect the work surface from damages due to constant use of wrenches. half dog.These are headless socket screws and are available with different points for various functional requirements.5. .

Vernier caliper. Application of these type of screws can be seen in Vernier height gauge. cup or oval. Grub screws:. Tightening and loosening of the assembly is finger tight only. conical. tapered dog.7. Thumb screws:.They have similar application as hexagon socket screws but are used for light holding.They are used in places where the fixing and removal of components are frequent. cylindrical. etc. They are also available in different points like flat. . 8.

. These screws have multi-start threads. cutting or self-piercing type.These type of screws are used for fixing thin plates like name plates. etc. They can be of thread forming. Joints made using these screws are vibration-resistant and can be assembled and dismantled many times. Hammer drive screws:. The screw is driven by a hammer. on cast iron machine body.They are used in assembly where thin section metal sheets are used. Self tapping screws:.9. 10.

A thin nut with both faces machined is placed below a nut in the assembly. Then using two spanner pressure is exerted on both nuts by turning in opposite directions.Nuts used along with bolts in assembly may loosen due to vibration. Both nuts are tightened over the bolt one after the other.LOOKING DEVICES  Locking Devices:. . Different types of nut locking devices are used depending on the severity of the condition in which the fastener is used. Lock-nut:. Both nuts are held together by friction. 1.

The internal diameter of the ring is smaller than the core diameter of the bolt thread.This is a method of locking a number of screws and bolts. This provides a positive grip and prevents the nut from loosening due to vibration. The nut while tightening cuts its own threads on the nylon insert. Wire lock:.2. . 3. In this method a soft steel wire is inserted and twisted.This is a special nut with a nylon or fiber ring insert placed in the upper part of the nut. Self locking nut:.

hexagonal nut.In this type of locking.The position of the nut can be locked using a split pin.This is a hexagonal nut with the lower part made cylindrical on the cylindrical surface. Sawn nut:.4. Grooved nut:. 6. 5. Slotted and castle nut:. Split pins are used for locking slotted nuts. and are used in different ways. A screw is fitted with a clearance hole on the top part and matching threads on the lower part of the nut. clevis pins etc. There is a recessed groove in which a set screw is used to lock the nut. . castle nut. a slot is cut half way across the nut.

Tab washers can be used for locking the nuts which are located near an edge or corner. Locking-washer with lug:. 8. . 9. Tab washer:.7. Locking plate:.In this arrangement of locking a hole is drilled for accommodating the lug. The movement of the nut is prevented by folding the washer against the nut.For preventing the nut from loosening locking plates are fixed on the outside of the hexagonal nut.

. These are placed under a nut in the assembly as washers.Spring washers are available with a single or double coil. The stiff resistance offered by the washer against the surface of the nuts serves to prevent loosening. Spring washer:.10.

QUESTIONS • What are the types of Screw ? • List the types of nut ? • What is the use of screw nut ? .

we learnt about Screw & Nut .CONCLUSION Thus.