You are on page 1of 22

INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES

Dr. Sarla Achuthan

What is Research?
2

An inquiry ; Systematic investigation to establish facts The strict definition of scientific research is performing a methodical study in order to prove a hypothesis or answer a specific question Work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock knowledge to devise new application
Formal-informal sector interaction in rural credit markets (Bose, 1998)

Routine Testing and Standardization Supervision of projects and training in research methods Teaching .What is not research 3      Consultancy: Deployment of existing knowledge Routine software development: Supporting existing systems. converting computer languages etc.

   . diagnostics To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables – hypothesis-testing research. To determine the frequency / association etc.e. i. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual situation or a group – descriptive.Objectives of Research 4  To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it – exploratory or formulative.

Fuel efficient cars  May be based on pure research  .Pure & Applied Research 5  Pure research  Involves theories with little apparent relevance to human concerns  No direct or immediate commercial benefits  Essential for expanding knowledge  Applied research concerned with finding solutions to problems of social or commercial importance  Eg: Research on HIV vaccine.

focus groups for understanding consumer behaviour Regression Analysis Constructive Empirical Primary Secondary Qualitative Quantitative . 2006) Develops solutions to a problem Tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence Involves data collection by researcher Involves study of existing data Involves in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons governing it Systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties & relationships Example Focus groups to understand the implications of gender discrimination Largely for computer science Regression to predict outcome of a function Data from sample population for demographics Data from census of India Interviews.Research Methodologies 6 Type Exploratory Meaning Preliminary information that will help define problems and suggest hypotheses (Kotler.

Related Terms 7     Concept: Proposition: Theory: Hypothesis: A proposed explanation for an observable phenomenon  Null Alternate- .

Scales in Research 8      Rating Scales Dichotomous scale Category scale Likert scale Numerical scales       Semantic differential scale Itemized rating scale Fixed or constant sum rating scale Stapel scale Graphic rating scale Consensus scale .

Types of Data 9  Data type  Nominal Scale  Ordinal Scale  Interval Scale  Ratio Scale .

Pointers for Literature Survey 10  Good literature survey thus ensures that: the Literature Survey  Conducting  Extracting the Relevant Information  Writing up the Literature Review .

11 Testing Goodness of Measures: Forms of Reliability and Validity .

Approaches to Research 12 Quantitative Inferential Experimental Simulation  Qualitatative Case study Content Analysis  - .

Research Process 13 Define the research problem Write the research proposal Develop the research design Collect Data Select Procedure and Analyze Data Select procedure and analyze .

Pointers for Report Writing 14        TITLE INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION REFERENCES .

even used by airlines for operations and maintanence SAS: Business Analytics and Intelligence software Lisrel: Pioneering software for structural equation modeling MS-Office: Excel has important analytical functions  VBA for making creating function .Important Softwares 15      SPSS: Statistical Analysis Package AMOS: Multi-purpose software pack for SEM.

IndiaStats .Data Sources 16  Government of India  Census  Databases: CMIE.

. 268 – 275. Understanding Sustainable Cities: Competing Urban Futures. European Urban and Regional Studies (6). A.  Book .Bibliography Schemes 17  APA: American Psychological Association  Journal Source: Guy. Development As Freedom. & Marvin. (1999). S. Reference: Sen. S. (1999). New York: Oxford University Press.

" European Urban and Regional Studies 6 (1999): 268 – 275. Amartya. New  Book . "Understanding Sustainable Cities: Competing Urban Futures.Bibliography Schemes… 18  MLA: Modern Language Association of America  Journal Source: Guy. Simon and Simon Marvin. Reference: Sen. Development As Freedom.

Reference: Sen. 1999. New York: Oxford University Press. Development As Freedom. 6 (1999): 268 – 275.  Book  Journal . "Understanding Sustainable Cities: Competing Urban Futures.Bibliography Schemes… 19  The Chicago Manual of Style Source: Guy. and Simon Marvin. Amartya. Simon. no." European Urban and Regional Studies.

and publication status. Do not fabricate. Respect Intellectual Property Rights Confidentiality: Honour confidentiality of critical information Use your work for social good . Objectivity: Avoid bias Integrity: Strive for consistency. or misrepresent data.Ethics in Research 20        Honesty: In reporting data. results. methods and procedures. keep your agreements Carefulness: No negligence Openness: Share your work.

Distinguish the necessary from the unnecessary 8. Seek extension of an earlier known solution 2. Distinguish the relevant from the irrelevant 9. Distill the essence. Seek symmetry by testing for duality 6.21 Research Commandments (Kedkar. 2009) 1. refine your ideas 7. find a problem 3. Seek generality by removing specificities 5. Find out the right questions to ask 4. Build levels of abstractions and migrate between them . If you have a solution.

Albert Szent-Gyorgyi .22 Questions? ‘Research is to see what everybody else has seen. and to think what nobody else has thought’ .