You are on page 1of 5

Types of concepts


A script on the other hand is a list of actions that a person follows in order to complete a desired goal. while discrimination is not the same as initial concept learning. Concept learning must be distinguished from learning by reciting something from memory (recall) or discriminating between two things that differ (discrimination). since memory recall of facts could be considered a "trivial" conceptual process where prior exemplars representing the concept are invariant.• • • • Not a Concept. An example of a script would be the process of buying a CD. Similarly. Constructs such as a schema and a script are examples of complex concepts. There are several actions that must occur before the actual act of purchasing the CD and a script provides a sequence of the necessary actions and proper order of these actions in order to be successful in purchasing the CD . However. A schema is an organization of smaller concepts (or features) and is revised by situational information to assist in comprehension. these issues are closely related. discrimination processes are involved in refining concepts by means of the repeated presentation of exemplars. Concrete or Perceptual Concepts vs Abstract Concepts Defined (or Relational) and Associated Concepts Complex Concepts.

Every baby discovers concepts for itself. but concept formation is more than generalizing from examples.Hearing or reading new words leads to learning new concepts. Words . comparing two exemplars while being informed that the two are from the same category allows the attributes shared by the category members to be identified. within a category and between categories comparisons are not always similarly useful for category learning. • . Inventing a stone tool to avoid broken fingernails was a new concept.Methods of learning a concept • • • • Discovery . On the other hand..Supervised or unsupervised generalizing from examples may lead to learning a new concept. they noticed that a broken stone sometimes had a sharp edge like a fingernail and was therefore suitable for scraping food.Another efficient way to learn new categories and induce new categorization rules is to compare a few objects when their categorical relation is known.When prehistoric people who lacked tools used their fingernails to scrape food from killed animals or smashed melons. such as discovering that each of its fingers can be individually controlled or that care givers are individuals. For example. Exemplars comparison . Interestingly. Invention . Examples . and illustrates the variability permitted within this category. A person may have previously formed a new concept before encountering the word or phrase for it. formation of the concept is more than memorizing perceptions. and the capacity to use either one of these two forms of learning by comparison is subject to change during early childhood (Hammer et al. 2009). Although this is perception driven. comparing two exemplars while being informed that the two are from different categories may allow an identification of attributes which has diagnostic value. but forming a new concept is more than learning a dictionary definition.

simplification. Neural networks also are open to neuroscience and psychophysiological models of learning following Karl Lashley and Donald Hebb. Neural networks are based on computational models of learning using factor analysis or convolution. Although the classical views of concepts and concept learning in philosophy speak of a process of abstraction. Neural network models of concept formation and the structure of knowledge have opened powerful hierarchical models of knowledge organization such as George Miller's Wordnet. . and summarization. Reinforcement learning as described by Watson and elaborated by Clark Hull created a lasting paradigm in behavioral psychology. The history of psychology has seen the rise and fall of many theories about concept learning. data compression. Classical conditioning (as defined by Pavlov) created the earliest experimental technique. Cognitive psychology emphasized a computer and information flow metaphor for concept formation.Modern psychological theories of concept learning • It is difficult to make any general statements about human (or animal) concept learning without already assuming a particular psychological theory of concept learning. currently popular psychological theories of concept learning diverge on all these basic points.

with some observed examples provided (Goodman. Example of rule-based theory: "A radiologist using rule-based categorization would observe whether specific properties of an Xray image meet certain criteria. for example. meaning that rational analyses have not been provided and the models are not related to statistical approaches to induction.Rule-based theories of concept learning • Rule-based theories of concept learning began with cognitive psychology and early computer models of learning that might be implemented in a high level computer language with computational statements such as if:then production rules. A rational analysis for rule-based models could presume that concepts are represented as rules. as opposed to simple. 2006)." (see Rouder and Ratcliff 2006) • • . Rules can be used in learning when the stimuli are confusable. and would then ask to what degree of belief a rational agent should be in agreement with each rule. When rules are used in learning. Rule-based theories of concept learning are focused more so on perceptual learning and less on definition learning. Feldman. The majority of rule-based models that have been developed are heuristic. They take classification data and a rulebased theory as input which are the result of a rule-based learner with the hopes of producing a more accurate model of the data (Hekenaho 1997). and Tenenbaum). is there an extreme difference in brightness in a suspicious region relative to other regions? A decision is then based on this property alone. decisions are made based on properties alone and rely on simple criteria that do not require a lot of memory ( Rouder and Ratcliff. Griffiths.