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Introduction To Multiphase Flow

Multiphase ?
Gas + Droplets Liquid Hydrocarbons Gas bubbles Water droplets Free Water Oil droplets Gas bubbles Hydrates Wax Sand

Multiphase flow
Complexities Interaction between the phases Fluid properties Interaction with the boundary conditions
i.e. reservoir and process plant

wells, flow lines, process equipment and control system

Pipe profiles

Multiphase flow predictions

are difficult: Several flow regimes Slip effects

Flow regimes in OLGA

(Horizontal flow)


Stratified flow

(Annular flow)


Dispersed bubble flow

Slug flow

Flow regimes in OLGA

(Vertical flow)


Annular flow

Dispersed bubble flow


Slug flow

Pressure and Flow

Assume outlet pressure given and fixed

Inlet Pressure

Gravity dominated

Friction dominated

Production Rate

Potential problems in multiphase flow


pipe 1 1

pipe 2 2

pipe 3 3

a.-terrain effect and slug-slug interaction


S lu gL e n g t h

b.-slug distribution

Hydrodynamic slugging
Two-phase flow pattern maps indicate hydrodynamic slugging, but slug length correlations are quite uncertain

tracking of the development of the individual slugs along the pipeline is necessary to estimate the volume of the liquid surges out of the pipelines

Potential problems in multiphase flow

TERRAIN SLUGGING A: Low spots fills with liquid and flow is blocked B: Pressure builds up behind the blockage C&D: When pressure becomes high enough, gas blows liquid out of the low spot as a slug
A. Slug formation C. Gas penetration

B.Slug production

D. Gas blow-down

Potential problems in multiphase flow

TERRAIN SLUGGING Terrain slugs can be very severe, causing large pressure variations and liquid surges out of pipeline. Terrain slugging is a transient situation which requires a dynamic model to predict and describe

Potential problems in multiphase flow

PIGGING Pigging the line will create a large liquid slug ahead of the pig
A: Slug build-up gas B. front arrival liquid C


C. slug surface

D. Pig arrival


Potential problems in multiphase flow

RATE CHANGES Pipe line liquid inventory decreases with increasing flow rate Rate changes may trigger slugging
Initial amount
Liquid In ventory

Amount removed

Final amount

Gas Production Rate

Potential problems in multiphase flow

SHUT-IN - RESTART Liquid redistributes due to gravity during shutin On startup, slugging can occur as flow is ramped up

A-Liquid Distribution After Shutdown shutdown

gas liquid

B-Gas and Liquid Outlet Flow

Other concerns with multiphase flow

Shutdown and startup
Temperature profiles Liquid surges during startup

Pipeline blow down

Temperature profile, gas and liquid flow rates

Liquid accumulation and water separation in low points Pigging operations Pipeline ruptures and other accidents

The Transient Multiphase Flow Simulator

The dynamic three phase flow simulator

8 Conserv. Equations mass (5) momentum (2) energy (1)
Fluid Properties

Closure Laws mass transfer momentum transfer energy transfer

Boundary Conditions

Initial Conditions


The OLGA three phase flow model

Mass conservation

Gas Hydrocarbon bulk Hydrocarbon droplets Water bulk Water droplets

Momentum conservation

Gas + droplets Liquid bulk

Energy conservation

Constitutive equations

Primary variables 5 mass fractions (specific mass) 2 velocities 1 pressure 1 temperature Secondary variables Volume fractions Velocities Flow rates Fluid properties

Modeling the pipeline profile in OLGA

The assumption

Fluid properties
General The fluid properties are pre-calculated tables as a function of P and T and for one fluid composition

It follows that the total composition is constant throughout a fluid table1)

The exact value of a property for a given P and T is found by interpolating in the relevant property table


Compositional tracking available with OLGA 2000 v3.00

OLGA 2000 Modules


with pigging

three-phase flow
FEM -Therm

conductive 2-D (radial) heat transfer finite elements integrated with OLGA bundle grid generator

OLGA 2000 Modules


compositional tracking
MEG-track UBitTS

Under Balanced interactive transient Training Simulator

Advanced Well Multiphase Pumps

positive displacement rotodynamic

Corrosion Wax

OLGA 2000 file structure

Input File .inp
ASCI I file

Fluid Properties File .tab OLGA 2000

.rsw reflex of the Input File + results from OUTPUT .tpl .ppl Restart File Profile Plot File (binary) Trend Plot File results from PROFILE results from TREND

Principles of OLGA 2000 execution


Input File .inp Fluid Properties File .tab

OLGA 2000 .tpl .ppl .out .rsw