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By

END USER EPC BY

: SIMHAPURI ENERGY PVT LTD : MADHUCON PROJECTS LTD


: GREENESOL POWER SYSTEM PVT LTD

SUPPLIER

MANUFACTURER : WUXI HUAGUANG BOILERS LTD PR China

Coal Combustion -Methods


Traveling Grate (Stoker fired) Pulverized coal fired Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion Circulating fluidized bed combustion Pressurized FBC Coal gasification (HRSG)

Travel grate

Slow combustion More un burnt in combusting coal Spreader stoker front or rear discharge Old technology suitable for most of the solid fuels

PC
Furnace T

Hi thermal h

Proven tech Very high capacities e.g. utilities Low Nox capture with spl burners Sox capture not viable Fuel flexibility poor

FBC

Fluidized beds suspend solid fuels on upward-blowing jets of air during the combustion process. More effective chemical reactions and heat transfer. Sox capture possible Suitable for coal and biomass & other fuels.

CFBC -ADVANTAGES

Fuel flexibility Low grade fuel firing Low Nox Sox capture High thermal h

No clinker

CFBC Different types

CFBC different types

OUR BOILER DETAILS


Main Steam pressure Main Steam temperature Steaming capacity Re heater pressure in/out : 13.7 Mpa : 540 C : 487 tph : 2.71 /2.57 Mpa

Re heater temp in/out


Reheating steam quantity Steam temp control range

: 327 / 540 C
: 419 tph : 60-100%

Feed water temp to eco


Thermal efficiency (Imp coal)

: 250 C
: ~ 86%

PARTS OF BOILER
Drum Furnace Cyclone Loop Seal HRA Re heater Super heaters Economizer APH ESP Refractory Ash coolers ID Fans PA / SA Fans Coal Feeders Hot air generators Over Bed Burners J seal Fan Bubble Caps Bunker Soot blower

Arrangement OF BOILER & ESP

PLAN VIEW OF BOILER & ESP

STEAM DRUM

Furnace
Flue

-Top supported
-Membrane walled -Wing walls for water panels for super heaters

-Metal spray:
-Important measurements
Temperature Inventory

-Refractory lining
-SA injection -PA from Bottom
SA

Draining of bed
Solids circulation

SA

-Section area: Upper


Lower

PA

The furnace design higher bed velocity : 5.2 - 5.5m/s Lower top velocity : 4.4 - 4.6 - 5.2 m/s The furnace height Extend residing time Once through 6.8 - 7s Advantages Low abrasion High reliability High combustion efficiency Control bed temperature for variety of heat fuel Control furnace outlet temperature to prevent super heater erosion Keep main steam parameters at 50%MRC Low Nox emission at different load

BUBBLE CAPS

CIRCULATION
Circulation ratio 25-30 Separation Rate 99.5 %

Flue

CYCLONE
Membrane walled Steam as media Velocity of recycling 20-25 m/s Escape particle size 60 m Refractory lining

High separation efficiency

Ash

Highly reliable Keep lower recirculation ash temperature Low melting point: 1020C

LOOP SEAL
Balancing the solids

Recirculation
Controlling Furnace t Back sifting Front seal air qty via rear Erosion
Seal air

Seal air

Free downward expansion Refractory critical

J SEAL Fan

Roots Blowers 2 working 1 Standby Capacity:4800 Nm3/hr Pressure:67500 Pa

Refractory
Plastic refractory Abrasion resistant refractory Monolithic

Refractory Interface

HRA
Second pass
Cyclone out

MOC: SA 210 A1 Membrane walled Steam as media Top supported Enclosure for super heaters, Re heaters

Cyclone

Re heater
Operating pr: 2.71 Mpa

Steam flow
Steam t C I/t:327 C Steam t C o/t:540 C

Controls by Dampers Emergency by spray MOC SA 210 A1

Super heaters
LT super heater Steam t in /out: Flue gas t in / out HT super heater Steam t in /out: Flue gas t in / out Controls by Dampers/ spray

MOC T11, T22, T91

Control Damper
Flue in

Four Dampers 2 nos in Re heater & 2 in super heater Temperature control esp. during start up Isolation of Re heater when required

Economizer
Water t C in : 250

Water t C out :
Flue in t : Flue out t :

MOC: SA210 A1

APH
TUBULAR Three pass Air in tube Flue outside Air in tC : 250

Air out tC :
Flue in t : Flue out t : MOC: CS /carton steel

ESP

Inlet gas Q: Inlet j : Outlet j: 50 mg/Nm3


(All fields in operation)

COAL FEEDERS

Capacity: N-1 condition: 6 working normal; 5 to meet MCR VFD driven

COAL FEEDING

ASH COOLERS
ASH CW

CW

ASH

4 coolers working N-1 condition 3 to meet MCR Ash treated: Ash in t C< 950 Ash out t C <150 Particle size: < 12 mm (typ)

Start up / Load Burners

Hot air generators

No of burners: 4 Ignition : Max WP 25 kg/cm2 Atomizing:

Capacity : 1000 lpm HEA (Retracting) Min WP: 10 kg/cm2 Pressure jet

Fuel: LDO /HSD

Over Bed Burners

No of burners: 4 Ignition : Max WP : 25 kg/cm2 Atomizing:

Capacity : 1200 lpm HEA (Retracting) Min WP: 10 kg/cm2 Pressure jet

Fuel: LDO /HSD

ID Fans

ID Fans : 2 x 60% Fan Flow : Nm3/hr Head MCR : mm wc Margins H/Q : Speed control by fluid coupling

PA / SA Fans

PA 2 x 60% Fan Flow Head Margins H/Q =


Speed control by fluid coupling

SA 2 x 60% Nm3/hr mm wc Fan Flow Head MCR Margins H/Q = Speed control by fluid coupling Nm3/hr mm wc

Deaerator

Capacity -De aeration: 530 tph Storage: 10 min MCR Feed water inlet temp : Feed water outlet temp : 160 deg C

Coal sieve
Coal Analysis 100

% passing

10

1 0.01

0.10

1.00

10.00

100.00 mm

Sieve analysis- Coal


Average size
>10 mm 11.402

Cum passing
100.00

10-8 mm
8-5.6 mm 5.6-4 mm 4-2.8 mm 2.8-2 mm 2-1.4 mm 1.4-1.0 mm 1.0-0.71 mm 0.71-0.5 mm 0.5-0.355 mm 0.355-0.25 mm 0.25-0.18 mm 0.18-0.125 mm 0.125-0.09 mm 0.09-0.063 mm <0.063 mm

8.944
6.693 4.733 3.347 2.366 1.673 1.183 0.843 0.596 0.421 0.298 0.212 0.150 0.106 0.075 0.045

95.00
86.00 82.00 68.20 58.20 42.60 36.50 32.00 28.00 22.20 20.30 16.50 12.10 8.30 5.20 1.86

Coal analyses
Design Proximate Analysis (ARB) Imp coal 26 34.52 32.38 6 Ind coal 10.5 21 26.2 42.3 Imp coal 23 33 31 3.5 Min Ind coal Imp coal 35 36 34 7 Max Ind coal 16.5 19.5 20 44

Moisture % Volatile Matter % Fixed Carbon %Ash % Ash % Sulphur (A.D. Basis) Organic % Pyretic % Sulphate % GCV Ultimate Analysis Carbon % Hydrogen % Nitrogen % Oxygen % Sulpher %

0.82 0.09 0.09 4800 3280

0.7 0.03 0.03 4600

0.95 0.15 0.2 5200 2900

74.28 4.59 1.5 18.62 1.01

33.73 2.35 0.75 5.48 0.37

70.9 3.5 1.35 16.3 0.99

76.5 6.5 1.71 22 1.68

30.9 2.09 0.85 5 0.36

Lime stone / Bed material


Lime stone /Bed material 100

% passing

10

0 0.01

0.10

1.00

10.00 mm

Lime stone sieve sizes


2-1.4 mm 1.4-1.0 mm 1.0-0.71 mm 0.71-0.5 mm 0.5-0.355 mm 0.355-0.25 mm 0.25-0.18 mm 0.18-0.125 mm 0.125-0.09 mm 0.09-0.063 mm <0.063 mm 1.673 1.183 0.843 0.596 0.421 0.298 0.212 0.150 0.106 0.075 0.045 100.00 99.00 96.00 84.84 67.49 46.90 24.97 10.90 4.50 1.36 0.47

Density / Temp profile

Temperature profiles
Ttop

Tseal-pot

Tbottom

Nox & Sox capture in CFB


Nox produced in combustion (Thermal Nox)

Nox in fuel released (Fuel Nox)


Low Nox when combustion is done below 1650 deg F or 899 deg C Staged combustion reduces Nox Lime stone injection Sox capture Typical Ca to S molar ratio 1.8 to 2.5 (depending on Sulpur content of fuel and reactivity of lime) If combustion temp is < 800 or > 900 deg C Sulfur capture is low. Lime stone consumption

Controls on CFBC
Furnace pressure PA SA pressure Wind Box pressure ( Monitoring) Furnace bottom pressure Furnace DP PA SA split flow

Fuel flow
Bed temperature control Bed level control Steam drum level control Steam temperature control Damper / Spray water Re heater steam temperature control J seal air flow ( less critical )

Start up curves

Hot start up

CFBC Heat transfer


Combustion in sub-stoichiometric condition Concentrates CO and C and limits availability of O2 Staged combustion ( 60% PA and 40% SA) Constant temperature profile Solids to transfer heat ; Particle size critical Bulk density of inventory materials critical -Greater bulk density greater heat transfer Recycle controls bulk density Upper furnace bulk density increases furnace exit gas temp decreases

Upper furnace temperature high then increasing PA increases bulk density and heat transfer Increase of PA dilutes lower bed density Make up materials required depends on how fuel contributes inventory and how well is its integrity Particle temperature critical

Air split changes furnace temperature profile


EA is contributed by SA & hence O2 trim is by SA Ash drain changes density

Particle density different at furnace bottom to top


Ash split is 70% thro fly ash and 30% by bed ash

Interlocks
J seal fans trip ID trip PA trip ID Fans trip SA trip ID trip PA trip

Furnace pressure very low Furnace pressure very high

Bed temp low


Bed level low Bed temp high

PA trip
Ash cooler stop Burners trip

Coal feeders trip


Drum level very low ID trip

Control logics Brief


Furnace pressure By ID fan ( VSC / Dampers)

Total air
O2 Steam pressure Bed level Bed inventory Bed temperature Steam temp

By PA + SA (VSC / Dampers)
By SA By coal feeders (VFD) + fans Ash coolers (VFD) Coal + bed materials + limestone Coal feeders (VFD) Attemperator / dampers cascade

Thank you !