Ecosystems Section 15 and 16

Essential Questions •How is energy captured and used in ecosystems to counteract entropy? •How are organisms interdependent?

• The study organisms and their relationship to their environment • An ecosystem is made up of a community of organisms and their interactions with their environment

• The Sun is the ultimate, original source of energy for most all ecosystems on the planet. • Producers use energy directly from the sun to produce sugars that organisms use for food. • Producer are autotrophs because they make their own food (photosynthesis)

• Some organisms live in the absence of light. • They build sugars by using the energy stored in chemical bonds. • This process is called chemosynthesis instead of photosynthesis.

• Consumers are organisms that get their energy by eating producers or other consumers. • They are called heterotrophs because they must depend on other organisms for their food.

. • The cow doesn’t make energy.Consumers/Heterotrophs • A cow eats grass. • The cow breaks down the simple sugars made by the producers into energy to live. it gets it from the grass.

. • The primary consumes are also known as herbivores.Consumers/Heterotrophs • The consumer that eats the producer is called the primary consumer.

Consumers/Heterotrophs • The consumer that eats OTHER consumers is called the secondary consumer. . • The secondary consumers are also known as carnivores.

. • The difference is that they break down dead organisms into detritus.Decomposers and Detrivores • Decomposers are also consumers and heterotrophs.

bacteria and fungi are decomposers that break down dead tissue.Decomposers and Detrivores • Detritus is eaten by detrivores which convert the organic material into inorganic material. . • When a wolf dies.

• Some of the suns original energy is lost in the form of heat energy.Decomposers and Detrivores • Detritivores (or detrivores) are usually small invertebrates like earthworms and nematodes (round worms) that recycle nutrients back into soil that are then taken in by plants – thus completing the cycle. . the lowest type of energy.

Decomposers and Detrivores • Note that they do not recycle energy. • Energy is a one-way pathway from the sun until it is used up. • Matter is recycled. not energy. .

• When drawing a food chain. . • Draw your arrows in the DIRECTION of energy flow.Food Chains and Food Webs • A simple diagram to show the flow of energy from autotrophs to heterotrophs to decomposers is called a food chain. always start with your producer.


.Food Chains and Food Webs • Create a food chain using at least 3 organisms found in Mississippi and place it in the box.

. more accurate view of an ecosystem. • A food web shows overlapping food chains and reflect a more complex. • The relationships between organisms are typically much more complex.Food Chains and Food Webs • Food chains don’t always fully show the flow of energy in an ecosystem.


Food Chains and Food Webs • Create a food web using at least 6 organisms found in Mississippi and place it in the box. .

.Trophic Levels and Energy Pryamids • Every step in a food chain or web represents a trophic level (feeding level). • A tropic level indicates how many times energy has been transferred.

• The fourth trophic level is tertiary (3rd) consumers. .Food Chains and Food Webs • The first trophic level is producers. • The second trophic level is primary consumers (herbivores). • The third trophic level is secondary consumers.

• Some energy is lost as heat energy and radiate out into the environment.Food Chains and Food Webs • Stored energy is transferred from one level to another when one organism eats another. and do all the life functions. . reproduce. • Some energy is used by the organism to grow.

• The higher the organism is on the energy pyramid. the less energy is available for that organism. • Only about 10% of the energy at each level is transferred to the next higher level. .Food Chains and Food Webs • These energy transfers are shown in Energy pyramids.

. stored in the second level organisms are transferred to the third level. so they make up the base of the pyramid. • 1% of the sun’s original energy.Food Chains and Food Webs • Producers get 100% of their energy from the sun. • 10% of the energy stored in the plants are transferred to second level.

Food Chains and Food Webs • These energy transfers create the pyramid. .

write all questions. If you have NOT PAID for your book. . • All Green Book Pages should have this heading: – Your name – The Section Number – The Page Number Food Chains and Food Webs • YOU WILL BE COUNTED OFF if you don’t have these on the top of the page.• Complete page 238. you do NOT have to write the questions. 1-10 in the Green Book • If you have PAID for your book.

geography (abiotic factor).Biomes • The Biosphere includes all the life of the Earth. and the types of plants and animals found in the biome (biotic factors). • The biosphere is divided up into Biomes. • Biomes are characterized by their climate (abiotic factor). .

etc. • Aquatic biomes are water biomes. amount of rainfall.Biomes • Abiotic – non-living things – Sunlight. • Lets complete the chart together! . rocks. • Biotic – Living things – Types of living things • Terrestrial biomes are land biomes.

Ground is permanently frozen. .Terrestrial Biomes • Tundra (next to the poles – North Canada) • Climate – Cold winters. short cool summers. caribou. some birds – no reptiles. • Dominant Plants – Mosses. small grasses • Dominant Animals – Small rodents.

Terrestrial Biomes • Coniferous Forest (Northern US) • Climate – Cold winters. Lots of precipitation. bobcats. deer. . elk. mild summers. • Dominant Plants – Cone bearing plants • Dominant Animals – bears.

raccoons. • Dominant Plants – Deciduous plants (this means they lose their leaves in the fall) • Dominant Animals – Animals you are familiar with in Mississippi – Deer. warm summers. . skunk. turkeys.Terrestrial Biomes • Deciduous Forest (Mississippi!!!) • Climate – Cool winters. bears.

large herbivores. Fires are common. . buffalo. low rain prevents large trees. • Dominant Animals – prairie dogs. • Dominant Plants – grasses. cold winders and hot summers. moderate precipitation.Terrestrial Biomes • Grassland (The mid-west) • Climate – Fertile soils.

fox. dry summers. snakes. mountain lion. mice. mild. rabbits. coyotes. birds . cool. owls. chipmunks. lizards. rainy winters • Dominant Plants – woody shrubs • Dominant Animals – insects.Terrestrial Biomes • Chaparral – (Pacific coast) • Climate – hot.

antelopes. hawks. SW US) Climate – Hot days and cold nights Dominant Plants – cacti and succulents Dominant Animals – bobcats. rattlesnakes .Terrestrial Biomes • • • • Desert (Mexico. sheep. mountain lions. owls. North Africa. lizards. rats.

rhinos.Terrestrial Biomes • Savanna (Africa) • Climate – Warm with seasonal rainfall • Dominant Plants – grasses. giraffe. antelope. leopards. • . zebra. lions. eagles. insects. ostrich. small clusters of trees and shrubs • Dominant Animals – elephants.

ferns. LOTS of diversity. large variety. • Dominant Animals – all types of animals in a large variety. most biodiversity. South America) • Climate – year-around high temperatures. . high rainfall • Dominant Plants – broad leaf evergreen trees.Terrestrial Biomes • Tropical Rainforest (Near equator.

.Aquatic Biomes • Aquatic Biomes are usually determined by the depth and temperature of the water as well as chemicals that are dissolved in the water (salt and oxygen). • There are two main groups freshwater (less than 1% salt) and saltwater (marine)(about 3% salt).

the cooler. • In general the faster the water. • There are fewer plants. clearer the water is. • Rivers and streams differ by SIZE. .Freshwater Aquatic Biomes • Flowing Water biomes include rivers and streams.

Freshwater Aquatic Biomes • Many animals and plants have adaptations that help anchor them in place or streamlined bodies. .

• Standing water biomes include lakes and ponds. • Phytoplankton are the producers of many aquatic food chains. • The primary consumers are often zooplankton. • Lakes and ponds differ by SIZE. • Standing water harbors many unsafe microorganisms. Freshwater Aquatic Biomes . • In general standing water is warmer and more turbid (dirtier).

the intertidal zone. . and estuaries. coral reefs.Saltwater Aquatic Biomes • The saltwater biomes includes areas called the aphotic zone. the coastal ocean.

Saltwater Aquatic Biomes • Aphotic zone • Deep in the water where it is dark and no sunlight reaches. • All producers in the aphotic zone are chemosynthetic autotrophs that do not need light. .

• Lots of photosynthetic organism live here which attract other animals to this area.Saltwater Aquatic Biomes • Photic zone • Area of water where light does penetrate. . • Between the photic zone and aphotic zone is the “twilight” zone.

snails. sea urchins. seals. .Saltwater Aquatic Biomes • Costal ocean • Saltwater. and whales. area from the outer continental shelf to the low-tide mark • Sunlight usually penetrates to the bottom • Kelp grows in certain areas • Includes lots of fishes.

• They spend some time in sunlight and sometimes exposed to air and temperature. . • Because of currents.Saltwater Aquatic Biomes • Intertidal zone • Area between low tide and high tide. organisms are usually attached to the bottom or have ways to hold on. subject to tidal changes • Organisms live here that can stand to be out of the water.

Saltwater Aquatic Biomes • Coral Reefs • Made of calcium carbonate formed by corals. warm saltwater. sea anemones. and the coral. starfish. usually no deeper than 40 meters. . • Home to colorful fishes. • Most diverse aquatic biome.

.Saltwater Aquatic Biomes • Estuaries • Where freshwater rivers and streams merge with the oceans. varying salt concentrations • Brackish water • Animals and plants must be adapted to the varying salt concentrations.

Ecological Relationships • Since plant fibers are harder to digest than animal. – Large. . flat molar teeth – Chew the cud – Special bacteria in the stomach – Stomach chambers. herbivores have evolved special adaptations to chew and digest their food.

kills. Prey is what the predator eats. A hawk consuming a rabbit for example. .Ecological Relationships • • • • Predator-Prey A predator hunts. and eats prey.

Ecological Relationships • Predators have evolved physical and behavioral adaptations that help them catch their prey. – Keen eyesight – Sharp claws or teeth – Fur coloration .

– Mimicry refers to a harmless organism mimicking the poisonous one so that predators will leave them alone. – Poison frogs have bright. green color to warn predators of the danger. .Ecological Relationships • Prey have adaptations to keep them from being eaten.

space. .Ecological Relationships • Competition • Anytime organisms try to use the same resource – Light. mates – Organisms will either adapt or die – Extinction is often the very end of natural selection. – If extinction happens because they were wiped out competely. They are out competed. food water. it is known as competitive exclusion.

and parasitism. . commensalism. • The three types of symbiosis common in biology is mutalism.Ecological Relationships • A relationship between organisms living together closely is called symbiosis.

.Ecological Relationships • Mutualism • Both species benefit in the relationship. the bees pollinate the flowers. • Flowers produce nectar to attract the bees.

The barnacles get a place to live and the whales get no benefit.Ecological Relationships • Commensalism • One species gets the benefit of living together. but another species isn’t benefited or harmed. . • Barnacles are attached to whales.

• Heartworms. some nematodes like tapeworms.” • Parasites usually don’t kill the host. then only weeken the host. some fungi and bacteria. • Parasite infects the “host. .Ecological Relationships • Parasitism • One organism gets all the benefit and the other organism is harmed.

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