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Ethanol Process – Corn Milling

Ethanol Process Fundamentals

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Dry Milling Process Corn Yeast Grind Fermentation Beer CO2 Fuel Ethanol 200 P Slurry Distillation Whole Stillage 190 P Dehydration Denaturant Product Storage Cook Centrifugation Wet Grains Dryer DDGS Liquify Thin Stillage Evaporation Enzymes Syrup Thermal Oxidizer Ethanol Process Fundamentals 2 .Ethanol Production .

Process Diagram – Corn Milling Ethanol Process Fundamentals 3 .

Process Diagram – Corn Milling Ethanol Process Fundamentals 4 .

as well as to make the mixture easy to pump. The Silo feeds the Dirty Day Bin.Corn Milling . cobs. which in turn feeds the Scalpers: • Scalpers remove material such as husks. and stalks • Magnets ferrous metals The Scalpers feed the Clean Day Bin. Ethanol Process Fundamentals 5 .Overview The whole-kernel corn must be ground to the consistency of coarse flour to prepare the grain for efficient introduction of water and enzymes.

from the water and ethanol later in the process • Too coarsely ground .Corn Milling . DDG.results in less conversion of starch to ethanol later in the process Ethanol Process Fundamentals 6 .makes it harder to separate the byproduct. where it is ground into flour: • Destroys the integrity of the protective covering (hull) of the corn kernel • Creates small particles that facilitate rapid penetration of water throughout the starch Grind size is crucial to the final percent conversion of ethanol: • Too finely ground .Overview The Clean Day Bin feeds whole-kernel corn to the Hammer Mills.

Overview Average flour grind size is very important in determining how well the cook system and centrifuge systems work. a disadvantage in transporting.Corn Milling . • Tends to increase the density of the dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). Smaller grind size: • Allows the cook system to work more efficiently since smaller particles absorb water more easily. thereby lowering total yield. Ethanol Process Fundamentals 7 . these two systems are at odds with each other and a compromise must be made in setting the grind size. Railcars are generally filled based on volume rather than weight restrictions. DDGS tend to have a relatively low density. Unfortunately. Water causes the starch to swell or gelatinize. Starch that does not become gelatinized is less likely to be converted to dextrin and fermented into ethanol later in the process.

which can then be recombined with the wet distiller's grains and further dried to produce DDGS Ethanol Process Fundamentals 8 .Corn Milling . • Suspended solids not removed during centrifugation end up in the backset and thin stillage • Material in the backset represents unfermentable solids in recycled water that goes to the fermenters • This solid material has limited benefit to the fermentation.Overview Larger grind size reduces the amount of fine suspended solids which pass through the centrifuges during DDG production. but takes up space in the fermenter and effectively reduces the usable volume • The solids in the thin stillage must be concentrated into syrup through evaporation.

Corn Milling . about ½ inch from the edge of the hammers • Impact of the hammers causes the kernels to shatter • Small pieces pass through the metal screens while larger pieces bounce around in the grinding chamber until they are small enough to pass through the screens Ethanol Process Fundamentals 9 .Hammer Mill Hammer mill: • Corn is fed into a cylindrical grinding chamber • Inside the chamber is a rapidly rotating drum with a series of metal bars • Bars have free-swinging metal plates that have hardened metal hammers attached at the ends • Outer boundary of the grinding chamber is a heavy metal screen.

Hammer Mill Ethanol Process Fundamentals 10 .Corn Milling .

Corn Milling .Hammer Mill Hammers Screens Ethanol Process Fundamentals 11 .

There are emission standards for: • Particulate Matter • Particulate Matter less than 10 microns • Opacity Ethanol Process Fundamentals 12 .Corn Milling – Dust Collection A dust collection system maintains a negative pressure on the Hammer Mills.

from the water and ethanol later in the process • Too coarsely ground .results in less conversion of starch to ethanol later in the process Ethanol Process Fundamentals 13 .Corn Milling – Summary Hammer Mills grind whole-kernel corn into flour: • Destroys the integrity of the corn kernel • Creates small particles that facilitate rapid penetration of water throughout the starch Grind size is crucial to the final percent conversion of ethanol: • Too finely ground .makes it harder to separate the byproduct. DDG.