TECHNOLOGIES 2
Torque Analysis
Torque Analysis
Output torque varies during the working cycle
due to variations in:
Gas pressure in cylinder
Crank position
Forces required to accelerate reciprocating
parts.
Torque Analysis
Torque and forces developed due to gas
pressure variation
In this case we exclude the forces required to
accelerate the moving parts i.e. for now we
consider the moving parts to be massless.
Torque Analysis
y is the perpendicular distance from the line of the
connecting rod to the bearing.
A
O
l
r

u
Gas force P

P
y
 tan P
1
x
Torque Analysis
The gas force P = gas pressure x piston area.
Since the gas pressure varies with piston
position which in turn varies with crank angle
θ, P must also vary with θ.
P/cosφ is the force in the connecting rod.
Resulting driving torque:
y
P
T
gas
× =
 cos
Torque Analysis
Torque and forces required to accelerate moving
parts.
The moving parts in the engine comprise the
reciprocating (translational motion) piston of mass
M and the connecting rod of mass M
c
which is
undergoing both rotation and translation.
In order to handle the motion of the connecting
rod we make the assumption that it may be
represented by a mass m
1
at the piston end and a
mass m
2
at the big end.
The mechanics of this will be dealt with later.
Torque Analysis
Thus the total reciprocating mass is
M = piston mass + m
1
O

u
y
1
x
x
Piston mass
connecting rod
part mass m1
mass m2
Piston mass + m1 = reciprocating mass M
Torque Analysis
For rotation about O mass m
2
will produce no
torque (why not?). Therefore the torque
required to accelerate the moving parts is due
solely to M.
 tan
1
× × = x force Torque
inertia
T x x M = =  tan
1
Torque Analysis
From the first lecture:
and
u  cos cos
1
r l x + =
u u 2 cos
4
cos
4 n
r
r
n
r
l + +

.

\

÷ ~

.

\

+ ~
÷
=  



2
2
sin
2
1
1 sin
sin 1
sin
tan

.

\

+ = u
u
2
2
sin
2
1
1
sin
n n
Torque Analysis
The inertia torque can be written
Expanding and neglecting higher order terms:
(
¸
(
¸
+ +

.

\

÷ ×

.

\

+ ×

.

\

+ = u u u
u
u u e 2 cos
4
cos
4
sin
2
1
1
sin
2 cos
1
cos
2
2
2
n
r
r
n
r
l
n n n
r M T
inertia

.

\

+ + = u u u e 2 cos
2
3
cos
2
1
sin
2 2
n n
r M T
inertia
Torque Analysis
Using the identity
We get
u u u u sin
2
1
3 sin
2
1
2 cos sin ÷ =

.

\

÷ ÷ = u u u
e
3 sin
2
3
2 sin sin
2 2
2
n
r
r
n
r r M
T
inertia
Torque Analysis
This torque is that required to accelerate the
system masses and must be subtracted from
the gas torque in order to determine the torque
available at the drive shaft:
inertia gas driving
T T T ÷ =
Dynamics of the connecting rod
Assuming that the connecting rod can be
replaced by two masses, one at the little end
and one at the big end. Two possibilities are
available to us:
1) Replace the connecting rod by two masses
having the same dynamic effect
2) Replace the connecting rod by two masses
but using the same geometry as the original.
Dynamics of the connecting rod
1) Replace the connecting rod by two masses
having the same dynamic effect
A
B
G
1
m
2
m
b a
Dynamics of the connecting rod
Total mass of connecting rod = M
R
Radius of gyration about centre of gravity,
G = k
G
.
Note that in this model mass m
1
is located at the
little end but mass m
2
is displaced from the big
end
Three main conditions to be fulfilled:
Dynamics of the connecting rod
Mass of model is the same as the mass of
the connecting rod
The C.G. position should be the same in the
model as in the connecting rod
2 1
m m M
R
+ =
b m a m
2 1
=
(1)
(2)
Dynamics of the connecting rod
The mass moment of inertia about G should
be the same
3 unknowns (m
1
, m
2
, and b) and 3 conditions
to satisfy
Substituting (2) into (3)
2
2
2
1
2
b m a m k M
G R
+ =
(3)
ab m a m k M
G R 1
2
1
2
+ =
( ) ab a m + =
2
1
Dynamics of the connecting rod
Hence:
From (1) and (2)
i.e.
( ) b a a
k M
m
G R
+
=
2
1
(4)
b
a
m M m
R 1 1
÷ =
b a
b M
m
R
+
=
1
(5)
Dynamics of the connecting rod
Equating (4) and (5)
b
a
k
G
=
2
ab k
G
=
2
(6)
Dynamics of the connecting rod
Either a or b may be fixed so long as equation
(6) is satisfied. This will result in complete
dynamic equivalence of the model and
connecting rod but it does raise problems in
that since m
2
is not located at the crank pin it
will contribute to the engine torque,
complicating the calculations.
Dynamics of the connecting rod
2) Replace the connecting rod by two masses but
using the same geometry as the original.
In this model m
1
is located at the little end and m
2
is located at the big end. Thus both a and c are
fixed. We still have three conditions to be met:
A
B
G
1
m
2
m
a
c
Dynamics of the connecting rod
a) Total mass:
b) Centre of gravity position:
These two equations allow calculation of m
1
and m
2
and
c) Generally the moment of inertia condition
will not be met
i.e.
2 1
m m M
R
+ =
c m a m
2 1
=
R
M
c a
c
m
+
=
1
R
M
c a
a
m
+
=
2
ac k
G
=
2
Dynamics of the connecting rod
For the model the equivalent mass moment of
inertia is
2
2
2
1
c m a m I
E
+ =


.

\

+
+
+
=
c a
a c
c a
c a
M
R
2 2
ac M
R
=
Dynamics of the connecting rod
Therefore a difference exists between the actual
mass moment of inertia and the model mass
moment of inertia:
If we are going to use this model for the
connecting rod we must include a correction factor
in the torque calculation
( )
2
g R
k ac M I ÷ = A
Crankshaft torque from the energy
equation
This is a simpler way of estimating crankshaft
torque based on an alternative way of looking
at Newton’s second law.

u
e
A
B
G
1
m
2
m
MP
net gas
force, F
x
x
load torque
G
Crankshaft torque from the energy
equation
The total reciprocating mass is made up of
the piston mass M
P
and the equivalent part of
the connecting rod mass m
1
.
i.e.
M
1
m M M
P
+ =
Crankshaft torque from the energy
equation
Using the power equation:
Rate of work done by external forces = rate of
change of K.E. of the system
This may be slightly modified:
Power Input = rate of change of K.E. + power
output
This neglects friction.
Crankshaft torque from the energy
equation
The system kinetic energy may be expressed:
The correction term is subtracted because
in moving some of the connecting rod mass to
the little end of the connecting rod the term
overestimates the kinetic energy of the
system.
2 2
2
1
2
1
. . 
I x M E K A ÷ =
I A
2
2
1
x M
Crankshaft torque from the energy
equation
Power input and power output may be
estimated from:
Where G is the output torque and F is the net
gas pressure on the piston.
x F input Power
= _
e G output Power = _
Crankshaft torque from the energy
equation
Substituting into the power equation yields:
From which we may estimate the crankshaft
torque:
In order to use this equation we need
approximations for and .
e   G I x x M x F + A ÷ =
   
e
I x x M x F G A + ÷ =
1


Crankshaft torque from the energy
equation
We saw earlier:
Assuming is small:
where
 u sin sin l r =
n l
r u u

sin sin
sin = =

  ~ sin
n
u

sin
~
t e u =
Crankshaft torque from the energy
equation
Hence
and
Hence for any crank angle θ and knowing the
velocity and acceleration of the piston together
with the gas pressure and and , the output
torque G can be calculated.
n
t e e

cos
~
n
t e e

sin
2
÷ ~

