You are on page 1of 20

FIRE SAFETY ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT BY

C.V.RAGHUNATHAN,B.TECH;DIS(HONS);MIE;MSEA

DY.CHIEF SAFETY MANAGER

FIRE GOOD SERVANT BAD MASTER

The seriousness is not felt till the effects are experienced  Most of the fires are caused by careless and ignorance  Destroys everything in one stroke  The industry should identify the the fire hazards and plan for the prevention, control and protection

it liberates heat. This process is called OXIDATION  The process of oxidation accompanied by the evolution of heat is called COMBUSTION  Fire is the visible light energy as flame liberated by the reaction .  When a substance undergoes chemical change by combining with oxygen.WHAT IS FIRE?  Fire is a chemical reaction in which a combustible material combines with oxygen in the atmosphere to give out heat and light.

Cotton waste burning in ill ventilated space)  RAPID COMBUSTION:.Petroleum )  SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION:Combustion by by absorbing atmospheric oxygen at normal temperature without application of external heat (Eg:.(Eg:.Paint scrap.RATE OF CUMBUSTION  The rate of combustion varies from substance to substance  SLOW COMBUSTION :.A chemical reaction accompanied by the rapid evolution of heat and appreciable amount of light. saw dust exposed to steam. phosphorus in contact with wood) .A chemical reaction accompanied by slow evolution of heat but not light (Eg:.

CONDITIONS REQUIRED FOR THE STARTING AND MAINTAINING A FIRE       FUEL (REDUCING AGENT) OXYGEN (OXIDISING AGENT) HEAT (EXTERNAL ACTIVATING AGENT) CHAIN REACTION When the above conditions join together a fire takes place To extinguish the fire remove any one or more of the above conditions .

Deprive oxygen supply by diluting or introducing inert media.FIRE EXTINGUISHING TECHNIQUES  STARVATION:.  BLANKETING:.Remove the fuel/Shift the combustible material from the neighbouring place(Closing the valve. stopping the pump etc.Cut off oxygen and cut off flame from the burning surface.  COOLING.Reduce the temperature of the fire below that is necessary for continued combustion. ..)  SMOTHERING:.

magnesium. paint etc.butane.petrol.CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES  CLASS A :.Fires involving ordinary combustible materials such as paper.Fires involving flammable gases such as methane. Aluminium etc.Fires involving flammable liquids such as oil. potassium.  CLASS B:. textiles dry grass etc. LPG etc.  CLASS D :. propane.  CLASS C :.Fires involving metals such as sodium. .

STAGES OF FIRE  INCIPIENT STAGE:.Actual fire is seen. flame and heat.Uncontrolled heat rapidly expanding. Flame and heat not observed.  SMOULDERING STAGE:.  FLAME STAGE:.Product of combustion visible as smoke. No visible smoke.Products of combustion not visible. . Heat follows instantaneously.  HEAT STAGE:.

Cables.Transformers.(of foreign substances) SMOKING/MATCHES:ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT:(Wiring.Gas cutting/Welding FRICTION:. Motors) STATIC ELECTRICITY:LIGHTNING EXOTHERMIC RUNAWAY REACTION HOT SURFACES OVERHEATED MATERIALS SPONTANEOUS IGNITION ENGINE EXHAUST .Bearings/Rollers ENTANGLEMENT:.SOURCES OF IGNITION             OPEN FLAMES:.

FIRE CONTROL SRATEGY   FIRE PREVENTION (SAFETY SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES)  FIRE PROTECTION  PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION  ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION .

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION  STRUCTURAL FIRE PROTECTION  MEANS OF ESCAPE .

STRUCTURAL FIRE PROTECTION  SELECTION OF SUITABLE MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTIONS  To prevent the start of fire  To slow down the growth rate of fire  To prevent the unrestricted spread of fire  To avoid structural failure .

SELECTION OF MATERIALS  Non combustibility  Flammability  Heat release  Smoke emission  Fire resistance .

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION FIRE DETECTING SYSTEMS FIRE QUENCHING DEVICES .

FIRE DETECTORS  SMOKE DETECTORS  (Ionisation &Optical detectors)  HEAT DETECTORS  (Fixed.Rate of rise of temp)  FLAME DETECTORS  (Infrared & Ultraviolet) .

Inert gas.DCP.FIRE QUENCHING DEVICES  Portable fire extinguishers  (Water.Sprinklers.Foam) .CO2)  Fixed installations  (Dry and Wet risers. water spray systems external hydrant points)  Fixed installations flooding CO2.Foam.

earthing arrangements  Removal/Safe disposal of dry vegetation . Quenching of lighted materials before disposal Proper lubrication of all moving parts to prevent frictional heating Work permit systems for gas cutting/welding Wetting the coal/lignite to prevent spontaneous combustion.PREVENTION OF FIRES IN THERMAL PLANTS         Proper Housekeeping Prevention of accumulation of coal/lignite dust/combustible waste. Arresting all the oil leaks immediately Periodically checking the electrical installations such as protective devices. electrical joints.

FIRE SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROACTIVE APPROACH ENGINEERING CONTROL MEASURES  Safe Design  Safe Construction  Safe Transportation/handling of materials  Safe Selection  Safe Erection & Commissioning  Safe Protection  Safe Operation & Maintenance .

Discipline.Motivation.Information.Instruction) Work Methods/Procedures/Permit Systems Provision/Usage of PPE .FIRE SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROACTIVE APPROACH PROCEDURAL CONTROL MEASURES Human Performance (Induction.Supervision.Training.

FIRE SAFETY MANAGEMENT REACTIVE APPROACH  Emergency Plan  Emergency Equipment  First Aid Treatment  Fire Fighting Systems .