Introduction to Information Technology

2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 3: Computer Hardware

Prepared by: Roberta M. Roth, Ph.D. University of Northern Iowa
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Chapter Preview
In this chapter, we will study: The hardware components of an information system:
• CPU (central processing unit) • Memory (primary and secondary storage) • Input devices • Output devices.

The classification of computers by power. Strategic issues regarding hardware.
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-2

The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The CPU Input Devices
Control ALU Unit

Registers Primary Storage

Output Devices

Communication Devices

Secondary Storage

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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The CPU (continued)
A microprocessor that executes

instructions to perform processing tasks. Component parts are:
Control Unit Arithmetic-Logic Unit Registers Primary Storage
The CPU
Control ALU Unit

Registers Primary Storage

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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The CPU (continued)
Control Unit Access program instructions Decode (interpret) instructions Control flow of data throughout system Data flows through paths called buses
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

The CPU
Control ALU Unit

Registers Primary Storage

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The CPU (continued)
Arithmetic-Logic Unit Perform computations on data Perform comparisons on data
The CPU
Control ALU Unit

Registers Primary Storage

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-6

The CPU (continued)
Registers High speed storage areas Hold data and instructions
The CPU
Control ALU Unit

Registers Primary Storage

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-7

The CPU (continued)
Primary Storage (Main Memory) Stores instructions from programs Stores data to be processed
The CPU
Control ALU Unit

Registers Primary Storage

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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The CPU (continued)
Machine Instruction Cycle An instruction is fetched from primary storage by the Control Unit The Control Unit decodes the instruction The ALU receives the data and the instruction and performs the calculation or comparison The result is stored in primary storage.
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-9

The CPU (continued)
 Computer performance is measured in

part by the number of Machine Instruction Cycles performed per second.  Factors affecting this performance include:
 Clock Speed  Word Length  Bus Width  Line Width
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-10

The CPU (continued)
Microprocessors evolved rapidly

due to

Miniaturation of transistors Decreasing distance between transistors on the chip (decreasing line width) Improved conductivity (flow) of electricity Improved instruction sets programmed into the chip.

Smaller, faster, cheaper, more
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

powerful chips with each

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Computer Memory
The CPU Input Devices
Control ALU Unit

Registers Primary Storage

Output Devices

Communication Devices

Secondary Storage

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Computer Memory Basics
 Computers are digital, and represent

data in bit patterns  Bit is shorthand for Binary digIT. The binary system consists of two values: 0 &1  8 bits = byte  Bytes are the basic measure of storage in computers  ASCII Code assigns a unique character to each pattern of 0s &1s in a byte.  Kilobytes, Megabytes, Gigabytes, Terabytes
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-13

Primary Storage (Main Memory)
Main memory is a temporary

storage area that holds three things…
information you are working with the application software you are using the operating system software

Increasing memory capacity
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

increases the performance of the system

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Primary Storage (Main Memory)
 Types of Primary Storage  Registers – part of the CPU; very fast; very limited
capacity

 Random Access Memory (RAM) – memory
chips on motherboard; general storage of program instructions and data; volatile

 Cache Memory – faster than RAM; used to provide
intermediate storage between secondary storage and RAM

 Read-only Memory (ROM) – chips storing
permanent instructions needed by computer; nonvolatile
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-15

Secondary Storage
Non-volatile storage of data and

instructions Huge storage capacity Cheaper than Primary Storage Slower than Primary Storage Magnetic and optical storage media
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-16

Secondary Storage Types
 Magnetic tape
 Cheap, slow, sequential access: good for backup

 Magnetic Disk

 Floppy  Hard disk  Zip drive  Memory Cards and Cartridges  Optical  CD-ROM, CD-RW  DVD  FMD-ROM
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-17

Storage for the Enterprise
Enterprise Storage Systems – provide coordinated, secure, managed storage for all enterprise data. Redundant array of independent disks (RAID) Storage area network Network-attached storage Storage Service Providers – third party storage utilities
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-18

Computer Classifications
 Computers are commonly classified by

their processing power:
 Supercomputers  Mainframes  Midrange  Workstations  Microcomputers  Computing appliances

 Classification boundaries are blurred.
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-19

Computer Classifications

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Input Technology
The CPU Input Devices
Control ALU Unit

Registers Primary Storage

Output Devices

Communication Devices

Secondary Storage

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Input Technologies
 Human-oriented  Keyboard  Mice / trackball  Touch screens  Stylus  Joystick  Microphone  Automated  ATMs  POSs  Optical Scanners
• OMR • MICR • OCR

 Voice recognition  Sensors  Cameras
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Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Output Technology
The CPU Input Devices
Control ALU Unit

Registers Primary Storage

Output Devices

Communication Devices

Secondary Storage

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Output Technologies
 Monitors  Printers  Voice  Multimedia

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Strategic Hardware Issues
 Productivity
 Will employees’ personal productivity increase as microprocessor power and speed increases?

 Changing Work Styles
 Will new work styles will benefit employees and the firm as a whole?

 New Products and Services
 Is the organization ready and able to take advantage of the new products and services that hardware advances may make possible for the business?

 Improved Communication
 Is the organization ready to use multimedia for knowledge sharing?
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-25

Chapter Summary
 Basic role and function of the CPU  Primary and secondary storage  Classifications of computers based on

processing power  Variety and purpose of input devices  Variety and purpose of output devices  Consideration of strategic issues raised by the advances in hardware technology
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-26

Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United Stated Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information herein.

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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