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LTE Principle

-UMTS Radio Network Planning & Optimization Dept


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Standard Development of LTE
Overview of LTE Technical Characteristics of LTE

Development and Evolution of Wireless Technologies
2G 2 .5 G 2 . 75 G 3G 3.5 G 3 . 75 G 3 .9 G








CDMA 2000 1X


EV-DO Rev. A

EV-DO Rev. B



Competitive Situation of LTE
2006 GSM EDGE Evolution
EDGE DL:474 kbps UL:474 kbps HSDPA DL:14.4 Mbps UL:384 kbps In 5 MHz

Enhanced EDGE DL:1.3 Mbps UL:653 kbps HSDPA/HSUPA DL:14.4 Mbps UL:5.76 kbps In 5 MHz





UMTS HSPA Evolution
Long Term Evolution CDMA2000 Evolution Mobile WiMax Evolution

HSPA Evolution DL:28 Mbps UL:11.5 Mbps In 5 MHz

LTE DL:100 Mbps UL:50 Mbps In 20 MHz
EVDO Rev 0 DL:2.4 Mbps UL:153 kbps In 1.25 MHz EVDO Rev A DL:3.1 Mbps UL:1.8 Mbps In 1.25 MHz EVDO Rev B DL:14.7 Mbps UL:4.9 Mbps In 5 MHz EVDO Rev C DL:100 Mbps UL:50 Mbps In 20 MHz Phase 2 DL:46 Mbps UL:4 Mbps 10 MHz 3:1 TDD

Fixed WiMax

Phase 1 DL:23 Mbps UL:4 Mbps 10 MHz 3:1 TDD

Standard of HSPA+/LTE/SAE .

NGMN testing is a prototype testing. The standard stabilized time and commercial launch time always has a interval of about one and a half year. so.    LTE commercial launch time in forecast: 2011 year. not a commercial product testing. .Standard Evolution & Industrial Life Circle 2006 R5 2007 2008 R6 2009 2010 R7 2011 R8 Commercial Test NGMN IOT Test Standard Stability Standard Release Commercial Release R5 R6 R7 R8 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Standard Frozen  The development of the standard and industrial has its own rule and circle: Standard Frozen  Standard Release  Standard Stabilization  Industrial Development. NGMN testing schedule doesn’t comply with the rule foregoing.

Contents    Standard Development of LTE Overview of LTE Technical Characteristics of LTE .

Over 40 operators & vendors have participated in the work of Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) technologies evolution. In the evolution process. which make LTE better meet the operation requirement.Origination of LTE 3GPP started RAN (Radio Access Network) technology evolution process in Canada Toronto meeting in Nov 2004. operators propose their request to NGMN. which is opened to all organization who has interested in. .

 Reduce the cost per data bit  Introduce more service.Introduction of LTE  LTE:3GPP Long Term Evolution  LTE is a technology which focuses on UTRAN Evolution   LTE adopts optimized UTRAN structure Purpose of LTE is to guarantee the continuous Objectives of LTEcompetitive power of 3GPP in future. better user experience and lower cost  More flexible utilization of existing and new .

LTE Project Schedule LTE Project Establishm ent Commer cial Launch Work Item Start 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Study Item Completi Work Item Stage on 2 Completion Work Item Stage 3 Completion .

LTE Project Progress Study Item Work Item Request confirmation RAN structure and Multi-access technology confirmation Study Item Phase 2 completion 12 3 2005 6 9 12 3 6 2006 9 12 3 2007 6 RAN-CN function split Channel structure and mobility detail confirmation Feasibility Study Core characteristic confirmation .

LTE Key Technical-Characteristics 1 Peak data rate DL peak data rate: 100Mb/s in 20MHz bandwidth. UL spectrum efficiency: 2.5 bps/Hz Control-plane latency Idle Mode (R6 Idle) -> Active Mode (R6 CELL_DCH): Less than100ms Dormancy Mode (R6 CELL_PCH) -> Active Mode (R6 CELL_DCH): Less than 50ms Control-plane capacity Support at less 200 activated subscribers per 5MHz bandwidth cell User-plane latency Small IP packet and empty system load (single subscriber in one cell): Less than 5ms . DL spectrum efficiency: 5 bps/Hz UL peak data rate: 50Mb/s in 20MHz bandwidth.

LTE Key Technical-Characteristics 2 User throughput DL: 3~4 times average through per subscriber/MHz as R6 HSDPA UL: 2~3 times average through per subscriber/MHz as R6 HSUPA Spectrum efficiency DL: 3~4 times spectrum efficiency (bits/sec/Hz/site) in full load network as R6 HSDPA UL: 2~3 times spectrum efficiency (bits/sec/Hz/site) in full load network as R6 HSDPA Mobility E-UTRAN should have best performance in the speed of 0~15 km/h High performance in higher speed of 15~120 km/h Guaranteed cellular network performance in the speed of 120~350 km/h (Up to 500 km/h in some specified frequency band) .

Support both paired and unpaired frequency band. uplink and downlink. etc. Support resource flexibility. Support voice and MBMS combination service. include power. Support both paired and unpaired frequency band. unique band. multi-access and frequency band.LTE Key Technical-Characteristics 3 Coverage Best spectrum efficiency and mobility performance in 5 km cell radius. coding. various band. Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service Support Lower complexity of terminal: adopt unique modulation. Spectrum flexibility E-UTRA should be able to utilize the following bandwidth in both UL and DL: 1.5 MHz.6 MHz. only tiny decline in 30km cell radius. Radio Band Resource (RBR) means all available radio resource of the operator. frequency assignment. 100 km cell radius should be considered. 2. 10 MHz. 15 MHz and 20 MHz.25 MHz. 1. . 5 MHz. modulation.

E-UTRAN terminal support inter HO with UTRAN and or GERAN. E-UTRAN architecture should base on packet. and support RT and Conversation service.LTE Key Technical-Characteristics 4 Co-existence and Inter-working with 3GPP Radio Access Technology Support co-existence and HO with GERAN/UTRAN network. E-UTRAN architecture should lower “single points of failure” phenomenon. . RT service HO between E-UTRAN and UTRAN (or GERAN) should finish within 300ms. Architecture and migration Unique E-UTRAN architecture. E-UTRAN architecture should support end-to-end QoS The protocol of backbone network should be high efficiency.

LTE Key Technical-Characteristics 5 Radio Resource Management requirements Enhanced end to end QoS More efficiency high-level packet Support load sharing and policy management inter Radio Access Technologies (RAT) Complexity Minimize optional item Lower redundancy .

Contents    Standard Development of LTE Overview of LTE Technical Characteristics of LTE .

LTE/SAE Network Architecture  Relationship with SAE (CN Evolution) and 2G/3G and other network UTRAN GERAN SGSN S3 HSS S6a S1-MME MME S11 S10 LTE-Uu UE ” PCRF S4 S7 Rx+ E-UTRAN S1-U Serving Gateway S5 PDN Gateway SGi Operator 's IP Services (e. IMS.) . PSS etc.g.

LTE/SAE Network Architecture  MME Function NAS signaling and security function CN signaling due to 3GPP RAN mobility UE tracing and achievability in Idle mode Roaming Authorization Bearer management function (include dedicated bearer establishment)  Serving GW Support UE mobility HO user plane function .

. which is similar with 3GPP Iur interface. which is similar with 3GPP Uu interface.LTE/SAE Network Architecture LTE related node interface: • S1-MME Control plane protocol referenced node between E-UTRAN and MME • S1-U Interface between E-UTRAN and transmit Serving-GW Each bearer user plane tunnel and path handover between eNodeB • X2 Interface between eNodeB. • LTE-Uu Air interface.

LTE Network Architecture  In LTE architecture. MME/S-GW MME/S-GW EPC EP S S1 X2 eNodeB E-UTRAN eNodeB X2 eNodeB X2 . and only one node eNodeB left. RAN is evolved to E-UTRAN.

MAC. Mobility. RAC.LTE Network Architecture  eNodeB Function eNodeB has the full function of Node B and major function of RNC in 3GPP R5/R6/R7.). RRC Scheduling. etc. include Physical layer function (HARQ etc. Node B RNC eNodeB .

Radio Admission Control eNB Measurement Configuration & Provision Dynamic Resource Allocation (Scheduler) RRC RLC MAC S1 PHY SAE Gateway Mobility Anchoring PDCP MME NAS Security Idle State Mobility Handling SAE Bearer Control internet E-UTRAN EPC .LTE Protocol Structure eNB Inter Cell RRM RB Control Connection Mobility Cont.

S1 Interface Protocol & X2 Interface Protocol • S1 Interface User Plane (eNB-SAE GW) S1 Interface Control Plane (eNB-MME)  User plane PDUs S1-AP GTP-U UDP IP Data link layer Physical layer SCTP IP Data link layer Physical layer .

 Inter-3GPP-RAT Handover S1 paging function NAS signaling transmission S1 interface management Network sharing Roaming and restriction support NAS node selection Initial Context establishment – Context transfer from source eNB to target eNB – Control of user plane tunnels between source eNB and target eNB • General X2 interface management and error disposing .S1  S1/X2 Interface Function X2 • LTE access system mobility function (UE in LTE_ACTIVE)  SAE bearer service management        Mobility (UEs in LTE_ACTIVE)  Intra-LTE Handover.

LTE Radio Protocol Structure • User plane protocol stack UE PDCP RLC MAC PHY eNB PDCP RLC MAC PHY SAE Gateway .

LTE Radio Protocol Structure • Control plane protocol stack UE NAS RRC RLC MAC PHY RRC RLC MAC PHY eNB MME NAS .

LTE Channel Structure – Transport Channel & Physical Channel BCH PCH DL-SCH MCH • Mapping of Transport Channels onto Physical Channels in Downlink Downlink Transport Channels CCPCH PDSCH PDCCH Downlink Physical Channels RACH UL-SCH  Mapping of Transport Channels onto Physical Channels in Uplink PRACH PUCCH PUSCH Uplink Transport channels Uplink Physical channels .

 LTE Channel Structure – Transport Channel & Logical Channel Mapping of Logical Channels onto Physical Channels in Downlink PCCH BCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH MCCH MTCH Downlink Logical channels • Mapping of Logical Channels onto Physical Channels in Uplink PCH BCH CCCH DCCH DL-SCH DTCH MCH Downlink Transport channels Uplink Logical channels RACH UL-SCH Uplink Transport channels .

LTE Radio Resource Management Radio Bearer Control Radio Access Control Load Balance Connection Mobility Control RRM ICIC Radio Resource Management Inter-RAT PS Dynamic Resource Assignment .

and guarantee the quality of ongoing session. QoS requirement of exiting session and QoS requirement of new service. Disposing of related RB session termination. RBM should consider the EUTRAN overall resource. priority. RAC should consider the E-UTRAN overall resource. also need to be considered. RBC also needs to consider the disposing of exiting session radio resource change due to mobility or others reason. The purpose is to make best of radio resource (Accept new RB request as long as there has available radio resource). QoS requirement of exiting session and QoS requirement of new service. maintain and release radio bearer.RBC  LTE Radio Resource Management . include the configuration of related radio resource. . (Reject new RB request if it influenced ongoing session)  To establish. handover.RBC & RAC RAC The major function is to accept or reject new RB establishment request. etc. When establish a RB for new service.

Dynamic resource assignment contains several sub-task. In idle mode. buffering state and interference. The typical function of packet scheduling is considering of RB related QoS requirement. . handover decision can also be referred to neighbor-cell load. cell selection arithmetic defines best-cell or decides cellselection start time by setting parameters (threshold and latency). transport and hardware resource. include selection of RB to be scheduled and management of obligatory resource. Similarly. and other policy defined by operators. support radio connection mobility. Handover decision can be referred to the measurement of UE or eNB. service attribute. also include resource buffering and disposing. Dynamic resource assignment or packet scheduling are used to assign resource in user-pane and control-plane. E-UTRAN system broadcast parameters define UE measurement and report process in active mode. Dynamic resource assignment also needs to consider restriction or selection useful resource block in ICIC. Moreover. UE channel quality.CMC  LTE Radio Resource Management – CMC & DRA-PS DRA-PS  Radio resource management in idle mode and active mode. and cancel the assignment.

Load balance arithmetic may trigger HO or cell-reselection so as to reassign service traffic in high load cell to another cell with light traffic load. ICIC is a function of multi-cell radio resource management. so it needs to consider information comes form multi-cell. such as resource occupation and service load.LTE Radio Resource Management – ICIC & LB & Inter-RAT RRM ICIC To manage radio resource. Inter-RAT HO decision should consider RAT resource. specially connecting radio resource in inter-RAT HO. Essentially.  . so as to control inter-cell interference. The default preferred ICIC method in downlink and uplink should be different. The purpose of LB is to affect the load distribution so as to make the best use of radio resource and guarantee user QoS and lower call drop rate.  LB Be responsibility for disposing of the unbalanced service load between cells. UE capability and operators’ policy. specially radio resource block.  Inter-RAT RRM To manage inter-RAT mobility.

LTE Mobility Management LTE Idle  LTE Active Hand Over (intra E-UTRAN HO)  Hand Over (Inter RAT HO) FFS  Intra-frequency Mobility  Inter-frequency Mobilty  Inter-RAT Mobility   Cell Selection Cell Reselection FFS LTE MM .

Handover Confirm packet data 11. UL allocation + TA for UE 10. Handover Request 5. Area Restriction Provided packet data UL allocation 2. continue delivering in-transit packets DL Data Forwarding 14. Handover Complete Path Switching 12. Handover Command Detach from old cell and synchronize to new cell Deliver buffered and in transit packets to target eNB DL Data Forwarding Buffer packets from Source eNB L3 Legend signalling L1/L2 signalling User Data Intra-MME/SAE Gateway HO 8. Measurement Control packet data Target eNB MME/SAE Gateway 0. Admission Control 6. Measurement Reports 3. Synchronisation 9. HO decision 4.Handover Process UE Source eNB 1. Release Resources packet data packet data Handover Completion Handover Execution Handover Preparation . Handover Complete Ack 13. Handover Request Ack DL allocation 7. Release Resource Flush DL buffer.

• QOS Concept and SAE Bearer Service Architecture SAE bearer service layer structure SAE Internet E-UTRAN EPC UE eNB GW Peer Entity End-to-end Service SAE Bearer Service External BS SAE Radio BS SAE Access BS Phys. Radio BS Physical BS Radio S1 Gi .

SON Partial function eNB power on (or cable connected) (A) Basic Setup a-1 : configuration of IP address and detection of OAM a-2 : authentication of eNB/NW self-configuration and self-optimisation a-3 : association to aGW Self-Configuration (pre-operational state) a-4 : downloading of eNB software (and operational parameters) (B) Initial Radio Configuration b-1 : neighbour list configuration b-2 : coverage/capacity related parameter configuration Self-Optimisation (operational state) c-1 : neighbour list optimisation c-2 : coverage and capacity control (C) Optimization / Adaptation .

OFDM/SC-FDMA  Physical Layer Multi-access DL is based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) UL is based on SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Accessing)  OFDM: For UE. user diversity . conquer multi-path Difference comedown OFDMA is used as effect and obtain in difference submulti-access means to frequency diversity carrier.LTE Key Technology . obtain gain. OFDM is used for data modulation so as to OFDM Modulation  OFDMA: For eNode B.

such as Doppler Frequency-offset. Phase Noise.OFDM Characteristics  Prone to realize the restraint to multi-path  High spectrum effect efficiency  Simplified receiver  Flexible spectrum expansion capability  Prone to be influenced by frequency-offset.LTE Key Technology . etc. prone to bring high peak power.  High Peak-to-Average Ratio. .

Sub-carrier of SC-FDMA is set 15kHz. Time domain signal is transmitted in the system. PAPR caused by frequency domain signal in OFDM system will be eliminated. DFT Subcarrier Mapping IFFT CP insertion  SC-FDMA in LTE UL adopts DFT-OFDM. .LTE Key Technology– Uplink:SC-FDMA  Multiple Address Access in Physical Layer   UL: Based on SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Accessing) . in which signal is spread using DFT before it is modulated by OFDM IFFT.

LTE maximum antenna configuration is 4*4 (Quadruplex Transmitters Quadruplex Receivers).LTE Key Technology – MIMO  Multi-antenna Technology LTE adopts MIMO as multi-antenna technology LTE basic antenna configuration is DL 2*2 (Double Transmitters Double Receivers) and UL 1*2 (Single Transmitter Double Receivers). SIMO MIMO .

mainly used to control the transmission of control signaling).LTE Key Technology – MIMO Theory v11 Modulator QPSK 16QAM Encode Channel Interleave Detector v21 Data stream DeMUX v12 Transm itter Receiv er MUX Data stream Encode Channel Interleave Modulator QPSK 16QAM v22 Detector  MIMO Technologies include: Space multiplex (SM).  The concrete technology is in consideration and not yet determined. Rank-adaptation and open loopTx diversity (STTD. . Space division multiple address (SDMA). Pre-coding.

LTE Key Technology – Downlink: MIMO  If all the Space Division Multiplex (SDM) streams are used in one UE. Only one data stream is issued. eNode B UE eNode B UE   SU-MIMO: SDM Two data streams are issued within a TTI   SU-MIMO: Tx Diversity. it is called Single User (SU) MIMO. . Assume each eNodeB has 4 antennae namely SU-MIMO.

it is called Multi-User (MU) Assume each eNodeB has 4 antennae MIMO. Only one data stream is issued. .LTE Key Technology – Downlink: MIMO  If many Space Division Multiplex (SDM) streams are used in many UEs. eNode B eNode B UE UE UE UE   MU-MIMO: SDM Two data streams are issued within a TTI   MU-MIMO: Tx Diversity. namely MU-MIMO.

Key Technologies in LTE -. Might be 2x2 or 4x4 configuration in the future. The UE uses one transmitting antenna. .Uplink: MIMO and Virtue MIMO Similar to that in downlink MIMO  Virtual MIMO:    The current configuration is 1x2 or 1x4.

LTE Key Technology – Modulation and Coding  Modulation and coding Modulation:  DL: Support QPSK. 16QAM and 64QAM  UL: Support QPSK. 16QAM and 64QAM (64QAM is optional for UE) Coding Turbo  LDPC: Low density parity-check Code 101111 64QAM constellation chart .

LTE will probably become a 4G standard. research and development of LTE.  LTE continues to use part of HSPA key technologies.  In future. for instance OFDM/OFDMA.Summary  The operators take a most important role in the initiation.  Current LTE performance has already exceeds the original objective. such as AMC and HARQ. . but with new breakthrough.