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School of Electrical, Electronics and

Computer Engineering
University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne



Baseband Digital Modulation


Prof. Rolando Carrasco



Lecture Notes
University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne
2007



Baseband digital information
Bit-rate, Baud-rate and
Bandwidth
B
t
B
t
1
denotes the duration of the 1 bit
Hence Bit rate =
bits per second
All the forms of the base band signalling shown transfer data at the same bit rate.
E
t
denotes the duration of the shortest signalling element.
Baud rate is defined as the reciprocal of the duration of the shortest signalling element.
Baud Rate =
E
t
1
baud
In general Baud Rate ≠ Bit Rate
For NRZ : Baud Rate = Bit Rate
RZ : Baud Rate = 2 x Bit Rate
Bi-Phase: Baud Rate = 2 x Bit Rate
AMI: Baud Rate = Bit Rate
Non Return to Zero (NRZ)
The highest frequency occurs when the data is 1010101010…….
i.e.
This sequence produces a square wave with periodic time
E
t t 2 =
Fourier series for a square wave,
If we pass this signal through a LPF then the maximum bandwidth would be 1/T
Hz, i.e. to just allow the fundamental (1st harmonic) to pass.
Non Return to Zero (NRZ)
(Cont’d)
The data sequence 1010……
could then be completely
recovered
Hence the minimum channel bandwidth
Rate Baud Since
Rate Baud
T
B
E E
= = = =
t t
1
2 2
1 1
min

Return to Zero (RZ)

Considering RZ signals, the max frequency occurs when continuous 1’s are transmitted.
This produces a square wave with periodic time
E
t t 2 =
2
min
Rate Baud
f B
U
= =
If the sequence was continuous 0’s, the signal would be –V continuously, hence
' ' DC f
L
=
.
Bi-Phase
Maximum frequency occurs when continuous
1’s or 0’s transmitted.

E
t
1
2
min
Rate Baud
f B
U
= =
This is similar to RZ with
Baud Rate = = 2 x Bit rate


The minimum frequency occurs when the sequence is 10101010…….
e.g.

B
t
E
t
2
min
Rate Baud
f B
L
= =
In this case
=
Baud Rate = Bit rate

Digital Modulation and
Noise
The performance of Digital Data Systems is dependent on the bit error rate, BER, i.e.
probability of a bit being in error.
· ÷ = N as
N bits Total
E Errors of No
P
Digital Modulation

There are four basic ways of sending
digital data
The BER (P) depends on several factors
• the modulation type, ASK FSK or
PSK
• the demodulation method
• the noise in the system
• the signal to noise ratio
Prob. of Error or BER,
Digital Modulation and
Noise
Amplitude Shift Keying ASK
Digital Modulation and
Noise
Frequency Shift Keying FSK
Digital Modulation and
Noise
Phase Shift Keying PSK
System Block diagram for
Analysis
DEMODULATOR – DETECTOR – DECISION
For ASK and PSK
Demodulator-Detector-Decision
FOR FSK
Demodulator
Demodulator Cont’d)
T RC design Hence
dt V
RC
V
IN out
=
÷ =
}
1

Detector-Decision
1
V
0
V
- is the voltage difference
between a ‘1’ and ‘0’.
)
2 2
(
2 1
V V
V
REF
+
=
A
=
Detector-Decision (Cont’d)
N
D
is the noise at the Detector input.
Probability of Error,
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
÷ = P
D
N
erf
2 2
1
2
1

Hence
0
v
1
v
0
v
0
-o o
P(v
0
)
v
n
Probability density of binary signal
v
0
v
1
2
2
1 0
2
) (
0
2
1
2
1
) (
o
t o
v v
n
e v P
÷
÷
= ) (
1 n
v P
v
n
n
v v
v v
e
dv e P
n
2
2
0
1 0
2
) (
2
1
2
1
o
t o
÷
÷
·
+
}
=
Using the change of variable
o 2
0
v v
x
n
÷
=
Probability density function of noise
(*)
D
N =
2
o
}
·
÷
÷
=
o
t
2 2
1
0 1
2
1
v v
dx x
e
e P
dx e z erfc
z
x
}
·
÷
=
2
2
) (
t
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
2 2
2
1
0 1
1
o
v v
erfc P
e
This becomes
The incomplete integral cannot be evaluated analytically but can be recast as a
complimentary error function, erfc(x), defined by
Equations (*) and (**) become
n
v v
v v
e
e
dv e P
v v
erf P
z erf z erf c
n
2
2
1
1 0
2
) (
2
0
0 1
1
2
1
2 2
1
2
1
) ( 1 ) (
o
t o
o
÷
÷
+
· ÷
}
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ =
÷ =
(**)
It is clear from the symmetry of this problem that P
e0
is identical to P
e1
and the
probability of error P
e
, irrespective of whether a ‘one’ or ‘zero’ was transmitted, can
be rewritten in terms of Av = v
1
– v
0
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
| A
÷ =
2 2
1
2
1
o
v
erf P
e
-for unipolar signalling (0 and Av)

-for polar signalling (symbol represented by voltage
2
v A
±
Detector-Decision (Cont’d)
PSK FSK ASK Optimum For
PRK
N
S
erf PSK
N
S
erf FSK
OOK
N
S
erf ASK
IN
IN
e
IN
IN
e
IN
IN
e
, ,
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
4
1
2
1
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = P
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = P
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = P
( ) dB/10 in SNR
10
e
P
e
P
e
P
SNR in watt
ASK FSK PSK
0 0 0.0024 15.8489
12
0
0.0008 0.0127 10.00
10
0.0002
0.006 0.0379 6.3096
8
0.0024
0.023 0.0791 3.9811
6
0.0125
0.0565 0.1312 2.5119
4
0.0375
0.104 0.1867 1.5849
2
0.0786
0.1587 0.2398 1.00
0
Linear gain
SNR in dB
0 0 0.0024 15.8489
12
0
0.0008 0.0127 10.00
10
0.0002
0.006 0.0379 6.3096
8
0.0024
0.023 0.0791 3.9811
6
0.0125
0.0565 0.1312 2.5119
4
0.0375
0.104 0.1867 1.5849
2
0.0786
0.1587 0.2398 1.00
0
Linear gain
SNR in dB
Probability of Symbol Error
1.00E-04
1.00E-03
1.00E-02
1.00E-01
1.00E+00
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
SNR in dB
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

S
y
m
b
o
l

E
r
r
o
r
ASK
FSK
PSK
Detector-Decision (Cont’d)
FM/ FSK Demodulation
One form of FM/FSK demodulator is shown below
In general V
IN
(t) will be

t Cos V t V
IN c IN
e = ) (
IN
e
( )
IN IN
f t e 2 = Where is the input frequency (rad/sec)
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | t t Cos t t Cos
V
V
B A Cos B A Cos CosB CosA Since
t Cos V t Cos V V
t V t V V
IN IN IN IN
c
x
IN c IN c x
IN IN x
e t e e t e
t e e
t
÷ + + + + =
÷ + + =
+ =
+ =
2
2
1
) ( .
2

FM/ FSK Demodulation (Cont’d)
( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( ) | | t e e t e
e t e e e t e e
IN IN IN
c
x
IN IN IN IN IN IN
c
x
Cos t Cos
V
V
t t Cos t t Cos
V
V
+ + =
÷ + + + + =
2
2
2
2
2
( ) ( ) | |
) 2 (
2
) 1 (
2
2
2
2
2
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
t Cos
V
and
t Cos
V
IN
c
IN
c
e
t
e
i.e
Thus there are two components

Component (1) is at frequency 2 f
IN
Hz and component (2) is effectively a ‘DC’ voltage if
IN
e
is constant.
The cut-off frequency for the LPF is designed so that component (1) is removed and
component (2) is passed to the output.

t Cos
V
V
IN
c
OUT
e
2
2
=
FM/ FSK Demodulation (Cont’d)
The V/F characteristics and inputs are shown below
Analogue FM
c
c DC c
m m DC out
m m DC IN
DC IN
IN out
m c
f
T V f
f t Cos V V f e i
t Cos V V V
t m V V
f V f
c x m y
V f
1
,
. .
) (
0
0
= =
+ + =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
= A
o
e o o
e
o
o
Modulation Index
m
m
m
c
f
V
f
f o
| =
A
=
FM/ FSK Demodulation (Cont’d)
|
( )t n Cos J V t V FM
m c
n
n c s
e e | + = =
¿
·
=1
) ( ) (
The spectrum of the analogue FM signal depends on and is given by
Digital FSK
c
c DC c
DC
DC
DC IN
DC IN
DC IN
IN out
f
T V f
s f or f V V f
s f or f V V f
s f or V V V
s f or V V V
t m V V
f V f
c x m y
1
,
' 0
' 1
' 0
' 1
) (
0 0 0
0 1 1
0
1
0
= =
+ ÷ =
+ + =
÷ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
o
o o
o o
o
Normalized frequency Deviation ratio

0 1
0 1
. . f f Modulus e i
R
f f
h
b
÷
÷
=
The spectrum of FSK depends on h
Digital FSK (Cont’d)
FM/ FSK Demodulation (Cont’d)
Consider again the output from the demodulator

t e
IN
c
OUT
Cos
V
V
2
2
=
t
4
c
T
c
c
f
T
1
=
c
f
The delay is set to where and is the nominal carrier frequency
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
c
IN c
OUT
f
f
Cos
V
V
4
2
2
2
t
Hence



|
|
.
|

\
|
=
c
IN c
OUT
f
f
Cos
V
V
2 2
2
t
FM/ FSK Demodulation (Cont’d)
The curve shows the demodulator F/V characteristics which in this case is non linear.
Practical realization of F/V process
The comparator is LIMITER – which is a zero crossing detector to give a ‘digital’ input to
the first gate.
t
t
This is form of ‘delay and multiply’ circuit where the delay is set by C and R with

= CR
Practical realization of F/V process (Cont’d)
Practical realization of F/V process (Cont’d)
IN
f
c
f
Consider now

Practical realization of F/V process (Cont’d)
c
IN
OUT
f
f AE
V
4
=
Plotting Vout versus
IN
f
(Assuming A=1)