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• Contents/ Pedagogy / Cases

• 1-Overview of the nature and significance of environmental issues and trends Global and regional issues, multilateral environmental agreements • • 2-Fundamentals of Environmental, health and safety • Identification of potential safety and health hazards in industrial and development projects, reduction strategies, policies and legislation, international and national perspective, safety standards and management systems, ISO 14000, ISO 18000. • • 3-Environmental Law in India, legal aspects for managing the environment and National Environmental Policy • 4-Environmental Impact assessment and environmental clearance

• 5-Carbon Credits Market– Global climate change and Kyoto Protocol, Clean Development Mechanism, Carbon credits business process: Emerging Opportunities, Biomass Energy, Status and future of Carbon markets.

Environmental issues: nature and significance trends
• Environment: • Environment is the sum total of water, air and land and the interrelationships among them along with human beings, other living organisms and property. • It includes all the physical and biological surrounding and their interactions. • Environmental Studies provide a systematic approach towards understanding the environment of our planet and the impact of human life upon the environment. • Environment is actually global in nature, it is a multidisciplinary subject including physics, geology, geography, history, economics, physiology, biotechnology, remote sensing, geophysics, soil science and hydrology etc.

Types of Environment and forces which impact it.
• • • • • Biological Social Physical Geographical Man made-landfills, transport network, telecom network, space network, sewage systems etc • Pollution • Business

• Natural phenomenon and Human Activity

clean and healthy natural ecosystem. • Environmental issues like global warming. energy resources. • It also deals with issues like safe and clean drinking water.Importance of understanding Environment • Environment belongs to all the living beings so is. hygienic living conditions and clean and fresh air. fertility of land. air. important to all. depletion of ozone layer. dwindling forest. • Environment Study deals with the analysis of the processes in water. environmental protection. management and environmental engineering are immerging opportunities for environment protection and management. business administration. . soil and organisms which leads to pollute or degrade environment. • Sustainable environmental law. present and future. land. loss of global biodiversity etc affect every creature. It helps us for establishing standard. healthy food and development. for safe.

• • . Helps in ploughing. leveling. it reduces the fertility of land and also leads to loss of organic matter from the soil. transport and store and helps in better crop yield. They are easy to handle. Their increasing use pollutes the environment and contaminates the surface and ground water resources. It also affects the lakes. tube wells and agricultural equipments. weed controlling and sowing etc. ponds and underground water due to the accumulation of fertilizers in them and the soil causing Eutropication and Algal Blooms. In the long run. Mechanization has increased agricultural produce. (ii) Chemical factors: Fertilizers and pesticides are used in abundance.Human Activities and their Affects on Environment • • • • • • • Agriculture(i) Mechanical factors: Tractors.

Reasonable funds should be provided for the construction of treatment plants for industrial effluents. . 5. 3. Recycling practices should be made mandatory in all industrial plants. Instead of Cradle to Grave.Industries • • • • • • • • • • • • • • They cause:(i) Ecosystem imbalance (ii) Biodiversity loss (iii) Toxic metal and non-metal discharge (iv) Food chain imbalance (v) Disturbance of self purification mechanism (vi) Gaseous emissions Control Measures 1. 4.we need to move to Cradle to Cradle concept. Scientific techniques should be adopted for the reprocessing of the industrial waste. Appropriate Technology should be used to manufacture goods and services. 2. Legal provisions should be enforced by proper administration.

• 5. The deafening sound of machinery used in mining and the blasting create conditions that may become unbearable to local people and the forest wild life. river and ground water. It leads to migration of tribal people from mining areas to other areas in search of land and food. for example CH4. Water dissolves these wastes to produce contaminated fluid that pollute soil. CO2 etc. Formation of ponds which can alter the hydraulic gradient and drainage basin limits in local regions. • 7. It leads to deforestation including loss of flora and fauna. • 4. • 2. • 6. Mining results in lowering of ground water table. Mining also leads to air pollution due to release of green house gases and other toxic gases. • 3. Mining produces enormous quantities of waste compared to any other natural resource extraction activity.• Major effects • 1. Mining . Mining operations produce a lot of noise.

Sometimes. 2. attacks the lungs and it also reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. It harms even the plant lives by reducing plant growth. Carbon monoxide reacts with haemoglobin of the blood to form carboxyhaemoglobin and minimizes the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. • • • • • • • • . eventually pass this oil to the other organisms as well via food chain. its productivity and its yield at a high rate. The symptoms are headache. since these organisms play a vital role in the food chain. CO2/CO: It is emit from automobiles. Nitrogen oxides (NO2): It is toxic at the highest rate. accidents take place due to which oil spills into the ocean. 3.5 ppm. Hydrocarbons: It causes lung and skin cancer as it is carcinogenic. tiredness. This floating oil is absorbed and consumed by billions of tiny phytoplankton and other organisms. due to storms and icebergs. fatigue. and other forms of marine life depend upon them. they. It causes many diseases like lung cancer and Asthma. It occurs due to the breakdown of the air sacs in the lungs. that covers the distance between countries. Its concentration during 1990’s was 1. unconsciousness and cardiovascular damage. B) Sea Transport It consists of ships and submarines etc.Transportation • • • • A) Road Transport Various pollutants that emit from automobiles: 1.

• ( f ) Implementation of emission norms for new and in use vehicles. Airplanes create supersonic booms which harms people physiologically and psychologically. • (d) Improvement in the traffic system and conditions of roads. industries and commercial centers. • (i) Improvement in fuel quality and usage of cleaner fuel. • (c) Improvement in the processes of automobile technology. Various pollutants such as CO. • (e) Restriction in the growth of urban centers. . and Cl2 etc. CO2. • (g) Use of unadulterated fuel. oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulphur are spread in the atmosphere through airplanes. • Measures to reduce impact • (a) Reduction of lead content in motor fuel. Jet planes travel in the stratosphere and disrupt the Ozone layer by emitting pollutions such as SO4. • (b) Global Common Regulation for traffic movements. fuel distribution system and vehicles.• c) Air Transportation • It is one of the fastest modes of transportation and pollution too. • (h) Keeping a check on evaporative emission form storage tanks.

3. Search of new jobs requires time. Loss of cultural identity. Breakage of community structures. People face greater problems of availing recourses due to competition in the relocated Environment. • d. differently. Inter-relationship and potential for mutual fraternity is diminished. 3. Families face long-term hardships. 2. Weakening of traditions. • c. Educational. 5. b. Income sources are shattered and ruined. . 4. Disturbances in the social structure 2.Resettlement and Rehabilitation of People • • • • • • • • • • • • • Social Problems 1. Psychological and Environmental a. Economical Problems 1. Education of children gets interrupted. Joint families are separated which affects different members of the family. Resettlement in the newer environment affects the mental and physical skill of the individual.

Housing • Housing involves dwellings of living beings in the form of group housing. office buildings. radio. blower. steel. sand. • Various sources of pollution generated in housing activities are: • Indoor Sources of Pollutants • (a) Air conditioner provides good temperature for fungal and other bacterial growth. heater. cause noise pollution. • (b) Fumes generated from kitchen appliances such as gas stove. aluminium etc cause water and soil pollution. fan. cooler etc. shopping malls.V. industrial township etc. tobacco smoke. gravel. • Outdoor Sources of Pollutants • (a) Building construction material such as cement. • (c) Other appliances such as T. • (d) Materials used for decoration such as varnishes. oven causes air pollution. marbles. paints. freon using as solvent in industries causes air pollution. • (b) Shops producing ozone from photocopier machine. coated wall papers etc create air pollution. . multi-storeyed buildings.. cooker.

• It refers to the consumption of resources by the people. • Waste Management is an outcome of Consumerism. our needs have multiplied so consumerism of resources has also increased. . Industrialization and extensive marketing strategies have resulted in consumerism . as our life style is dynamic and changing. • In the modern era.Wastes • All Human activities result in production of wastes. • More consumption leads to more waste generation and more waste generation to pollution in the environment. • Waste Accumulation is a growing problem. • Consumerism has arisen due to the increase in population size and due to demand by this population. India alone is losing $ 2 billion per annum due problems related to WA.

Its depletion is a cause of global concern as its thinning will let the lethal UV rays pass and reach to the earth’s surface which will result into cancer. Ozone Depletion/ Global warming and Climate Change Ozone layer acts as a shield scattered in the stratosphere. Substantial reductions up to 70% have been observed in the ozone column over Antarctica. Oxygen Depletion Food Insecurity. Ozone hole is usually measured as reduction in the total column above a point on the earth’s surface. eye damage and even will reduce our immunity. and an increase in the frequency and severity of some extreme weather events.Global and regional Environmental issues • • • • 1. which is normally expressed in Dobson units. Sea level rise. Acidification of Sea Water. Volcanism Earthquakes. It absorbs the sun’s UV radiation and keeps it away from the earth’s surface. Diseases • • • • • • • • • .

• Deforestation and damage to other environmental systems could cut living standards for the world's poor by half and reduce the global gross domestic product (GDP) by about 7 percent. dam building. disrupts ecosystems and leads to the potential extinction of many species. Deforestation in those regions wipes out critical habitat. which might be essential for cures or effective treatments of the world's most devastating diseases.2. Deforestation • Deforestation refers to the loss or destruction of naturally occurring forests. mining operations. primarily due to human activities such as logging. cutting trees for fuel.3 million hectares of forests are permanently lost every year. • Approximately 7. • Logging alone—much of it illegal—accounts for the loss of more than 32 million acres of our planet's natural forests every year. and urban sprawl or other types of development and population expansion. slash-andburn agriculture. oil extraction. clearing land for livestock grazing. . including irreplaceable species that could be used to make medicines. • Scientists estimate that 80 percent of all species on Earth—including those not yet discovered—live in tropical rainforests.

Desertification can result from climate change or from human practices such as deforestation and overgrazing. • India has total land area of about 328 million hectares out of which 24% is wasteland area. Desertification • The deserts in the world should occupy about 48 million sq. km (including the ice deserts). • The world economic losses due to the desertification are estimated at US$ 42 billion per annum. km.3. In addition. • The transformation of land once suitable for agriculture into desert. . km represents the man-made deserts. km more is the area of less severe desertification. • The difference of 9 million sq. But today the area of deserts reaches 57 million sq. about 25 million sq.

which can inhibit water loss from evaporation and prevent salt accumulation. which involves the creation of multiple levels of flat ground that appear as long steps cut into hillsides. which prevent soil erosion from wind and water. . • Crop rotation. which involves the alternation of different crops on the same plot of land over different growing seasons. plant cover can help maintain normal rainfall patterns. Cover crops may be perennials or fastgrowing annuals. which is the process of limiting the grazing pressure of livestock in a given area. They can also reduce the local effects of drought. • Rotational grazing. which reduces soil erosion and retards overall water loss. • Salt traps. which involve the creation of so-called void layers of gravel and sand at certain depths in the soil. • Cover crops. This technique can help maintain the productivity of the soil by replenishing critical nutrients removed during harvesting. This technique involves changes in the design of irrigation systems to prevent water from pooling or evaporating easily from the soil.Remedies. Salt traps prevent salts from reaching the surface of the soil and also help to inhibit water loss. On larger scales. Livestock are frequently moved to new grazing areas before they cause permanent damage to the plants and soil of any one area. • Irrigation improvements. The technique slows the pace of runoff. • Terracing.

They are primarily used to slow wind-driven soil erosion but may be used to inhibit the encroachment of sand dunes. • Windbreaks. which involves the conservation of the plant community living along the sides of dunes. It helps to capture and hold rainfall before it can become runoff.Remedies. Conversion improvements retain a greater fraction of the heating potential of fuelwood. • Charcoal conversion improvements. which involve the establishment of lines of fast-growing trees planted at right angles to the prevailing surface winds. which include the use of steel or mud kilns or high-pressure compacting equipment to press the wood and other plant residues into briquettes. whereas the root network below keeps the soil together. The upper parts of plants help protect the soil from surface winds. . It also inhibits wind erosion by keeping the soil heavy and moist. Contour bunding is similar to terracing. • Dune stabilization. which involves the placement of lines of stones along the natural rises of a landscape. • Contour bunding (or contour bundling).

• 4. Afterwards when the flood water recedes. • 3. reduces soil loss. Planting the trees retains soil on the earth. • Watershed management can be helpful in the following ways: • 1. To hold the water series of small dams should be made on the streams. for wildlife habitat and aquifer recharging etc. . By applying farming practices at high areas such as mountains. It preserves water to recharge the aquifers.Water • The collection of flood water in any area is referred to as watershed management. • 2. • 5. Fish breeding can be done in the collected water. these areas are used for agricultural purposes.

dysentery. Air borne diseases • • Asthma. cough. due to suspended particulate matters. Dengue etc • Rabbies • Leptospirosis. Life style diseases. due to NO and NO2 • • Bronchitis. due to Pb • • Fibrosis. the health of mankind will also be deteriorated & many diseases will affect and strike. • • Amoebic dysentery.Diseases • If the environment keeps getting polluted. respiratory problems. Chickenguniya. due to SO2 • • Defects of nervous system. emphysema. Vector borne diseases • Malaria. due to bacterial infections. Water borne diseases • • Cholera. • D. • b. . due to viral infections. due to protozoal infections • C. • • Hepatitis. typhoid fever. Some of them are: • a.

• 3. • (2) Goiter and hypothyroidism: It is caused due to deficiency of iodine in the diet. • (3) The deficiency of vitamin such as vitamin A causes Night blindness. • 5. Malnutrition bring following abnormalities:(1) Anemia: It is caused due to lack of iron in the diet and/or inability of tissues to absorb iron from the blood. vitamin B causes • (4) Beri-beri. It affects human beings in following ways: • 1. vitamin C causes Scurvy. Body becomes susceptible to disease lack of proper nutrients. • 4. Physical abnormality generates social inferiority complex. vitamin D causes Rickets etc. • Malnourishment: Lack of healthy ingredients in diet is called as malnutrition. if the intake of calories is less than this then the individual becomes under-nourished.Food • Under Nourishment: The average energy requirement of a healthy man is about 2500 Calories/day. Delayed adulthood is observed. • 2. • 6. Inefficient energy makes human being unable to perform work properly. • Over Nourishment or Obesity . Mental retardation is seen. Hormonal disorders such as goiter is seen.

Co2. Pesticides. • Water pollution: Due to dumping of Sewage. Radio-active materials. caused BioAccumumlation and Bio. Eutropication of water bodies. fog. • Soil Pollution: Increase in the use of Fertilizers and pesticides to increase soil productivity has reduced soil yield. Energy Discharge in the form Heat. . Soot etc. wood. croplands. transportation. So2. NO2. etc causing Diseases in human Like Minamata disease due heavy metal contamination of water. urbanization. Smog.Pollution • Air Pollution: Increase in particulate materials like dust.Magnification in the food chain eg. H2S. Global Warming and Climate Change. impacting food availability and livelihood. Erosion of the top layer due to deforestation and unplanned water management. Solid Waste. Fertilizers. Loss of Marine and fresh water biodiversity. Liquid Wastes. released of incomplete burning of fuel. by Industries causes Acid rain. Oil spill. Release of Gases pollutants like CFCs. DDT. Methane. Co.

. starch to milk etc creates mild gastro-intestinal disorders which affect 30% of the population per year.Pollution • Noise Pollution: Caused by exposure to high decibles of sound causing Psycho.Somotic diseases which create economic loses over billions of rupees due to people reporting ill for work. saw dust to coriander power. • Food Pollution: Adulteration of food by adding chemicals like Chromium dye to haldi power. • Genetic pollution: Indirect impact on the unborn child due to consumption of polluted water and adulterated resulting in genetic deformities is on the rise. Also areas using Nuclear Technology have more cases of genetic deformities as compared to other areas.

such as the stock exchanges. unlawful destruction of property. kidnappings. ransom. and the use of chemical. nuclear and radiological weapons. commodities and money markets.Terrorism • Terrorism is the use of unlawful violence or other harmful acts against civilians for the purposes of intimidation. . and business and commercial establishments which remained closed. biological. stands as a beacon of India’s success in integrating itself in the global economy. • Acts of terrorism can include assassinations. bomb scares and bombings. which contributes as much as 5% of India’s $1 trillion GDP and nearly a third of its direct taxes. • Mumbai’s economy. • Acts of terrorism involve violence or the threat of violence. Furthermore. or to further political and ideological goals. • Post 26/11 . loss in business due to the attacks to be about $100 billion. the deliberate targeting of civilians. shootings. arising from crucial institutions. and the intention to create fear and "terror" among the general public. computer-based cyber attacks. coercion. the foreign exchange front got hit by $20 billion. hijackings.

• WWI – cost-$196. • The greatest danger is Biological weapons.000 lives lost.War • Colonization was an integral part of power expansion in medieval times. • Use of weapons of destruction has increased 1200% in the past 200 cost-$2.028. • The evolution of technology has resulted in new range of weapons. • War has been the greatest controlling factor in the human growth story.000 lives lost. . This is not just a waste of resources but also a waste of human effort and time.091.59.3 billion • Most of the weapons need to be discarded every time new technology comes to light.5 billion • WWII.016.

Food price would increase due to the increase of food consumption and decrease of the land available for agriculture. which then leads to death. which may cause more disease. • 6. • Under population is a new problem in Developed Nations. living condition would get worse. More land is needed to build houses on so deforestation happens . and thus tax might be increased to support hospital. Increasing divide between rich and poor. More water means less water for things like animals and plants so they die off and then there is less for people to eat causing a famine. • 5. Increase in cost of living. They then let methane gases into the atmosphere leading to global warming. . • 7. More food is then needed such as cows.leads to more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere because the trees are not there to change carbon dioxide into oxygen so less oxygen for people to breathe in. The more CO2 in the atmosphere leads to global warming. 2.Population Explosion • 1. warmth. 3. More demand on natural resources such as water. • 10. food. • 8. Unemployment rate might increase (which may trig more crime) 4. • 9. shelter. pigs (to produce the meats and milk (cows)).

Multilateral Environmental Agreements • • • • • UN Framework Convention On Climate Change Montreal Protocol on Ozone Protection Convention On Biological Diversity Convention On Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention On International Trade In Endangered Species • Basel Convention On Control Of Hazardous Wastes • Convention To Combat Desertification • International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling .

The 195 countries that have ratified the Convention are called Parties to the Convention.UN Framework Convention On Climate Change • The UNFCCC entered into force on 21 March 1994. • It is in this context that the Joint Liaison Group was set up to boost cooperation among the three Conventions. Its sister Rio Conventions are the UN Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention to Combat Desertification. . with the ultimate aim of developing synergies in their activities on issues of mutual concern. The three are intrinsically linked. • Preventing “dangerous” human interference with the climate system is the ultimate aim of the UNFCCC. It now also incorporates the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. Today. one of three adopted at the “Rio Earth Summit” in 1992. • The UNFCCC is a “Rio Convention”. it has near-universal membership.

• Sets a lofty but specific goal. when the UNFCCC took effect." It states that "such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change. in 1994. • This was remarkable for its time.Outcome • Recognized that there was a problem. in 1987): it bound member states to act in the interests of human safety even in the face of scientific uncertainty." . The UNFCCC borrowed a very important line from one of the most successful multilateral environmental treaties in history (the Montreal Protocol. and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner. • The ultimate objective of the Convention is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations "at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (human induced) interference with the climate system. to ensure that food production is not threatened. there was less scientific evidence than there is now. Remember.

and some have already succeeded. • A system of grants and loans has been set up through the Convention and is managed by the Global Environment Facility. . • Annex I countries were expected by the year 2000 to reduce emissions to 1990 levels. The Kyoto Protocol • Directed new funds to climate change activities in developing countries. • Industrialized nations agree under the Convention to support climate change activities in developing countries by providing financial support for action on climate change-. Many of them have taken strong action to do so. • The idea is that. as they are the source of most past and current greenhouse gas emissions. • The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) included 12 countries with “economies in transition” from Central and Eastern Europe. industrialized countries are expected to do the most to cut emissions on home ground.above and beyond any financial assistance they already provide to these countries.• Put the onus on developed countries to lead the way. Industrialized countries also agree to share technology with less-advanced nations.

• Charted the beginnings of a path to strike a delicate balance. in the interests of fulfilling its ultimate goal. when the Kyoto Protocol to the Convention was conceived. the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol . Nonetheless. One such win-win solution was to emerge later. Such progress is difficult to achieve even without the complications added by climate change. it seeks to help such countries limit emissions in ways that will not hinder their economic progress. The Convention takes this into consideration by accepting that the share of greenhouse gas emissions produced by developing nations will grow in the coming years. • Economic development is particularly vital to the world's poorer countries.

Convention-based approach to adaptation. In the early years of the Convention. which Parties agreed to set up under the Cancun Adaptation Framework as part of the Cancun Agreements. • The Convention acknowledges the vulnerability of all countries to the effects of climate change and calls for special efforts to ease the consequences especially in developing countries which lack the resources to do so on their own. is a major step towards a cohesive. Currently. as Parties wanted more certainty on impacts of and vulnerability to climate change. • When IPCC’s Third Assessment Report was released. work on adaptation takes place under different Convention bodies. . • The Adaptation Committee. and Parties agreed on a process to address adverse effects and to establish funding arrangements for adaptation. adaptation received less attention than mitigation.• Kicked off formal consideration of adaptation to climate change. adaptation gained traction.