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Safety

Edition 2.3 2007

Maintain Safety at CFA Incident Scene

Program Sessions
1 Introduction 2 CFAs Framework for Safety (SPADRA) 3 CFAs Workplace 4 Applying SPADRA at a CFA Incident

5 Summary

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Session 1
1 Introduction 2 CFAs Framework for Safety (SPADRA) 3 The CFA Workplace 4 Applying SPADRA at a CFA Controlled Incident

5 Summary

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Learning Outcomes
Be able to use a simple 5 step risk assessment process to:
identify potential health and safety risks using a simple (5 step) dynamic risk assessment model.

take steps to eliminate or control risks associated with their actions.

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Related Competency Unit


Public Safety Training Package
Competency Unit: PUAOHS002A

Maintain Safety at an Incident Scene


Elements: Determine hazards at incident site Implement hazard controls at incident scene Maintain personal safety Contribute to maintaining safety of other work group members
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Session 2
1 Introduction 2 CFAs Framework for Safety (SPADRA) 3 CFAs Workplace 4 Applying SPADRA at a CFA Controlled Incident

5 Summary

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Safety

is empowered to every individual; it cannot be delegated.

Safety

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Safe Person Approach

Organisational Responsibilities

Personal Responsibilities

Shared responsibility for safety


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Organisational Responsibilities
Selection of personnel Provision of risk information

Provision of protective clothing or equipment


Organisational Responsibilities

Provision of equipment and instruction on its use

Safe procedures and systems of work


Provision of effective instruction and clear direction Training to achieve competence Competent supervision Performance measurement
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Personal Responsibilities
Competent for the task assigned Effective member of the team Self discipline to work within accepted guidelines Adapt to changing circumstances Look out for your safety and your teams safety Recognise your own abilities and limitations
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Personal Responsibilities

Safe Person Approach

Personal Responsibilities

SAFE PERSON APPROACH


Organisational Responsibilities

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The 5 Steps of Dynamic Risk Assessment


A 5 step process:

1
HAZARDS

2
PLAN

3
RISKS

4
SAFETY

5
MONITORING

What is going on and what are the hazards?

What do I plan to do?

What are the What can I do risks of what I to make it plan to do? safer?

What do I need to monitor?

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Using Dynamic Risk Assessment


Constantly changing situations Thinking activity (do it in your head)

Monitoring (constantly monitor the scene and re-evaluate actions and planned actions)
Application
When approaching a dynamic situation
While on scene As you are departing the scene
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The Risk Assessment Matrix


CONSEQUENCE LIKELIHOOD
Certain Very Likely Unlikely Rare E = Extreme risk H = High risk M = Medium risk L = Low risk
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Catastrophic

Major

Moderate

Insignificant

E E H

E H H

H H M

M M L

Do not proceed. Alternate actions required. Proceed, monitor closely, consider alternate actions. Normal actions should suffice. Be aware of changes in situation that impact likelihood/consequences.
Maintain Safety at CFA Incident Scene

Safety in Whole Of Life


1
HAZARDS

2
PLAN

3
RISKS

4
SAFETY

5
MONITORING

What is going on and what are the hazards?

What do I plan to do?

What are the What can I do risks of what I to make it plan to do? safer?

What do I need to monitor?

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Dynamic Risk Assessment: 5 Steps

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Session 3
1 Introduction

2 A Framework for Safety (SPADRA)


3 CFAs Workplace 4 Applying SPADRA at a CFA Controlled Incident

5 Summary

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CFAs Workplace
In this session we will cover:
Types of incidents managed by CFA Incident management Key practices and procedures
Functional management identification Entry to an incident scene Staging areas

Health and hygiene


Personal protective clothing and equipment

Hazards at incidents Taking refuge


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Types of Incidents Managed by CFA


CFA is the Control agency for:
Fire wildfire and structural Rescue buildings and structures, road, rail, aircraft, industrial, and trench and tunnel Aircraft fire or explosion Explosion Gas leakage

Hazardous materials or dangerous goods Lifts, cranes or scaffolding Pollution in inland waters
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AIIMS Incident Management


Australasian Inter-service Incident Management System (AIIMS) Management is the same for all incidents
One controller Incident management team (if necessary)

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Incident Management Structure

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Functional Management Identification

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Entry to a CFA Controlled Incident Scene


When you enter an incident scene:
you will need to:
know who to report to what your role is and what you are expected to do who is looking after you briefed on the incident and your role.
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T-Cards
T-Cards are used to:
Record entry Record exit Track where personnel are Assist in planning for meeting welfare needs

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A Staging Area (Moondarah Fire 2006)

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Health and Hygiene

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Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment


Appropriate to role Appropriate to type of incident


-

Overalls Substantial footwear Helmet Gloves Goggles Drinking water (+ electrolyte supplement) Dust or smoke respirators Fire blanket Ear muffs First-aid kit Sun-block
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Hazards: Wildfire
Wind changes Heat illness

Radiant heat
Entrapment Smoke Spot fires Unpredictable fire spread

Electrical
Dust Falling trees Heavy equipment Aircraft

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Understanding Wind Changes

Northerly

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South Westerly

Maintain Safety at CFA Incident Scene

Hazards: Fire blown by wind


WIND CHANGES

(a)

Fire being blown by a northerly wind South westerly westerly South wind change change wind Danger as the is the eastern flank becomes becomingthe the head

(b) (b)

(c)

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Dead Man Zone (Clip 1)

~ Click above to pause/play ~

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Dead Man Zone (Clip 2)

~ Click above to pause/play ~

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Summary
Wind changes can turn a relatively safe flank fire into a deadly head fire in a matter of seconds. In these situations flames up to 40 m high are moving at maximum speed and cannot be outrun (Dead Man zone). Fire accelerates rapidly when moving uphill.

Dont end up anywhere near the Dead Man Zone if you can smell smoke (even when they are no flames visible) you need to move to a safe place immediately.
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Wildfire Hazards: Radiant Heat


RADIANT HEAT

Comfortable distance = 4 x flame height

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Radiant Heat Video

~ Click above to pause/play ~

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Entrapment Scenario
Travelling to a Staging Area
Golden Point Staging Area Fire flank becomes fire head trapping travellers on Ridge road.

Wind pushing fire front At 1700 hrs the wind change occurs

Police roadblock redirecting traffic up Ridge road to the Golden Point staging area.
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At 1645 hrs traffic to Staging Area is travelling up Ridge road

Maintain Safety at CFA Incident Scene

Taking Refuge in a Vehicle


Where to park:
In an area of least fuel load

Away from trees


Away from power lines

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Taking Refuge in a Vehicle continued


Once parked:
Leave motor running Ensure all exposed skin is covered Wind up all windows Close all vents Turn fan and air-conditioner on to recycle to pressurise vehicle interior Turn headlights on Get low: below window level Cover up with a dry woollen blanket
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Taking Refuge

~ Click above to pause/play ~

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Wildfire Hazards: Heat Illness


Remember to:
Take regular rest breaks Maintain fluid intake
Water
Electrolytes

Loosen clothing

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Heat Related Illness Video

~ Click above to pause/play ~

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Wildfire Hazards Electrical


Result from: high winds falling trees or branches burnt power poles falling motor vehicle impact Remember: Ground may be live Consider wires live until informed otherwise by a power company representative
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Wildfire Hazards: Aircraft


If caught in a drop zone:
Move away from the fireline; Dont run or panic; Watch your footing; Keep clear of your hand tools; Take cover Lay down and protect your head; Watch out for branches and debris;

If hit by foam or retardant:


Rinse off with cold water asap
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Wildfire Hazards: Heavy Equipment


Remember:

Operator has limited visibility Noise of machinery limits hearing dust falling trees rocks and debris falling down slope machinery changing direction quickly

Watch out for:

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Structure Fire Hazards:


Structural collapse Traffic Electrical

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Structure Fire Hazards: Collapse Brick/Masonry construction


Falling bricks or masonry

Tilt Slab construction


Walls collapsing outwards May be some hours after fire

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Structure Fire Hazards: Smoke

Smoke Radiant heat Vehicles Electrical

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Structure Fire Hazards: Electrical

Electrical Smoke Radiant heat

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Other Hazards: Hazmat Incident


Toxic gasses Toxic chemicals Need to keep upwind and uphill Minimum of 70 m buffer zone Respiratory problems Hazard to life if gas leakage is flammable

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Other Incident Hazards:


LIFTS, CRANES OR SCAFFOLDING
Moving AND suspended loads Scaffolding collapse or movement POLLUTION OF INLAND WATERS Personal health risks if exposed to pollution AIRCRAFT INCIDENTS Hazard of fire Hazard of fuel explosion EXPLOSION Hazard to life caused by damage to buildings, structures Hazard to life if additional explosive substances not yet detonated
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Session 4
1 Introduction 2 CFAs Framework for Safety SPADRA 3 CFAs Workplace 4 Applying SPADRA at a CFA Controlled Incident

5 Summary

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Applying SPADRA at a CFA Controlled Incident


Safe Person Approach
Importance of preparations

Dynamic Risk Assessment


When approaching, on scene and departing

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Scenario 1 Wildfire

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Scenario 1 - Wildfire Risk Assessment Matrix


CONSEQUENCE LIKELIHOOD Catastrophic E E H Major E H H Moderate H H M Insignificant M M L

Risk from Heavy equipment

Certain Very Likely Unlikely

Rare

CONSEQUENCE LIKELIHOOD Catastrophic E E H H Major E H H M Moderate H H M M Insignificant M M L L

May not be seen or heard

Certain Very Likely Unlikely Rare

CONSEQUENCE
LIKELIHOOD Catastrophic E E H H Major E H H M Moderate H H M M Maintain Safety at CFA Incident Scene Insignificant M M L L

Uneven ground - Trips Very Likely and Falls


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Certain

Scenario 2 Grass fire

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Scenario 2 Grass Fire Risk Assessment Matrix


CONSEQUENCE LIKELIHOOD Catastrophic E E H Major E H H Moderate H H M Insignificant M M L

Collision with fire truck

Certain Very Likely Unlikely

Rare

CONSEQUENCE LIKELIHOOD Certain Catastrophic E E H H Major E H H M Moderate H H M M Insignificant M M L L

Entrapment

Very Likely Unlikely Rare

CONSEQUENCE
LIKELIHOOD Catastrophic E E H H Major E H H M Moderate H H M M Maintain Safety at CFA Incident Scene Insignificant M M L L

Driving off the road while turning around


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Certain Very Likely Unlikely Rare

Scenario 3 Structure fire.

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Scenario 3 Structure Fire Risk Assessment Matrix


CONSEQUENCE LIKELIHOOD Catastrophic E E H Major E H H Moderate H H M Insignificant M M L

Struck by falling rubble

Certain Very Likely Unlikely

Rare

CONSEQUENCE LIKELIHOOD Catastrophic E E H H Major E H H M Moderate H H M M Insignificant M M L L

Be overcome by smoke

Certain Very Likely Unlikely Rare

CONSEQUENCE
LIKELIHOOD Catastrophic E E H H Major E H H M Moderate H H M M Maintain Safety at CFA Incident Scene Insignificant M M L L

Hoses or other equipment trip and fall


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Certain Very Likely Unlikely Rare

Scenario 4 Hazmat

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Scenario 4 Hazmat Risk Assessment Matrix


CONSEQUENCE LIKELIHOOD Catastrophic E E H Major E H H Moderate H H M Insignificant M M L

Wind change blows toxic fumes toward you

Certain Very Likely Unlikely

Rare

CONSEQUENCE LIKELIHOOD Catastrophic E E H H Major E H H M Moderate H H M M Insignificant M M L L

Distracted and crash yourself

Certain Very Likely Unlikely Rare

CONSEQUENCE
LIKELIHOOD Catastrophic E E H H Major E H H M Moderate H H M M Maintain Safety at CFA Incident Scene Insignificant M M L L

unidentified substances in remaining drums


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Certain Very Likely Unlikely Rare

Session 5
1 Introduction 2 A Framework for Safety (SPADRA) 3 CFAs Workplace 4 Applying SPADRA at a CFA Controlled Incident

5 Summary

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Summary
Safe Person Approach Dynamic Risk Assessment CFAs Workplace
Fires, Hazmats, Rescue, Explosion, Aircraft Incident Management (AIIMS, Objectives, Command structure, Briefings) Tabards, T Cards, PPC/E Staging Areas, Health & Hygiene, Welfare

Hazards
Wildfire behaviour, Radiant heat and taking refuge Heavy equipment, Structural fire & collapse, Hazmat
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Review of Learning Outcomes


On successful completion of this training learners will be able to apply a simple 5 step risk assessment process to :
identify potential health and safety risks associated with what they plan to do; and, take action to eliminate or control those risks.

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Closing
Remember:
know who you report to and who can provide support to you as you go about your job

know what to expect and how to get information relevant to your role
ensure that your presence at an incident is recorded for both safety and resource tracking Be aware of your surroundings and always work safely

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Assessment

Questions

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