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Jayson U. Garcia,MAEd Asst. Dean, College of Education

What Philosophy Is

What Philosophy Is

What Philosophy Is

What Philosophy Is Not

What Philosophy Is Not

What Philosophy Is Not

Formal Definition of Philosophy

Pythagoras once argued that it is really impossible for human being to know everything because this possibility is only available to God. With this limitation, he says that man can only befriend wisdom or somehow love wisdom. From then the words philia and sophia were used to name the lovers of wisdom...the philosophers.

Formal Definition of Philosophy

Formally, Philosophy is an act of questioning and searching for the meaning of his existence and of the things around him.

6 Important Parts of the Meaning of Philosophy

Human according to Aristotle, man by nature has the desire to know as embedded on mans rationality. Act it is not a content to be memorized rather it is an activity to be done or practice. It cannot be done by one person for the sake of the other.

6 Important Parts of the Meaning of Philosophy

Question it is an inquiry which starts with wonder and curiosity with the basic and ordinary experience in life. Search after asking the right question, the search for the answer follows. The search is the process of selecting the appropriate rational explanation on something and then thinking also the possible weakness of ones answer.

6 Important Parts of the Meaning of Philosophy

Meaning it is the end and direction of every activity. The meaning to oneself and to everyone constitutes this unending search. Everything nothing is outside the bounce of philosophical discussion. Even those which are not yet known are already part of it.

Things to Consider in the Definition of Philosophy

Philosophy is a science because it is a unique realm for investigating things. It is a science that has the ability to construct or deconstruct itself. Philosophy is not an exclusive science. It encompasses all things. Philosophy investigates things inside and outside of the phenomena. It starts to pour out gripping questions where science ends.

Things to Consider in the Definition of Philosophy

Philosophy uses the mind by necessity. The philosophers goes outside the box. The philosopher uses something that signifies the reality.

Who are the Philosophers?

Who are the Philosophers?

Everyone who is capable to question and search for meaning will be considered a philosopher. In the strict sense, philosophers are those who have courage to question and rethink the meaning of the common and ordinary things which most of the time are explained through the rule of common sense and the rule of the many.

The couple Mario, a civil engineer, and Katrina, a nurse, who are both from families of professionals are happily married. On the second month of their marriage, Katrina got pregnant. But during the check-up they are informed that Katrina has an ectopic pregnancy- a pregnancy which develops outside the uterus or womb. This situation means that if Katrina continues her pregnancy the baby might be live but it might result to her death. If she will undergo an operation she can recover but entails the death of the baby. What then is the right decision for this situation?

The Branches of Philosophy

Metaphysics deals with the origin of being or everything. It talks about the existence of things both material and immaterial. a. Theodicy talks about the certainty and nature of the divine. b. Cosmology deals with the origin, laws and nature of the universe.

The Branches of Philosophy

Epistemology studies the certainty of human knowledge. a. Philosophy of Science clarifies the certainty of scientific knowledge. b. Philosophy of Mind deals with the nature and functions of the mind. c. Hermeneutics deals with the interpretation of the meaning of text, action and events.

The Branches of Philosophy

... Under Epistemology d. Psychology deals with the behavior of man being composed of body and mind (soul).

The Branches of Philosophy

Logic it is the study of the systematic thinking and argumentation. a. Aristotelian (Traditional or Formal) the study of syllogistic arguments in word together with the written and spoken fallacies. b. Symbolic focuses with the study of argument using symbols and numbers.

The Branches of Philosophy

Aesthetics deals with the criteria of what is beautiful. Ethics deals with the act being good or bad. This is also known as Moral Philosophy. a. Bio-ethics tackles moral questions in the medical profession. b. Business ethics deals with the question of doing good in the enterprise where everyone is driven by self interest and

The Branches of Philosophy

... Under Ethics c. Environmental Ethics discusses the care for the environment amidst the drive for development. d. Political and Social Philosophy seeks about the best way to rule and serve the people.

The Branches of Philosophy

e. Philosophy of Man questions the identity of man as man, being, and living with the others in the world.

Why study Philosophy?

Only a few opt to study philosophy, they are those: a) preparing for priesthood, b) preparing for law school, c) driven by curiosity and last d) who are forced to study philosophy. What then is the value of studying philosophy?

Value of studying Philosophy

Practical Personal Professional Moral Aesthetic Socio-Political Economic

Method of Study

No one can teach anybody the best way on how to philosophize. There is no single method for this activity. The method of studying philosophy varies from every individual. Apply philosophical survey to humbly develop and cultivate ones own ideas while respecting the strength and weakness of others ideas.

Points for Human Perfection

No one can escape from thinking. Learning philosophy is a personal decision. Studying philosophy is not living with the ideals of others; rather it is knowing their ideals, sustaining what is helpful and denouncing those that are worthless.

Activity 1

My Pledge To Learning Oral Discourse

Historical Approach

Human Nature
Madaling maging Tao, Mahirap Magpakatao

What makes a man, man?

What is human and what is not? What really is it that makes human, human?

Preliminary Quest for Human Nature

Philosophy of Man is a question of human nature. Human nature is the identity which separate man from other creatures. It is mans distinct characteristics or quality which makes him man, where in the absence of this thing then one cannot be categorized as man.

The Question

Is there anything in nature which separate man from the other?

If there is, then, What is this nature?

First Answer

Second Answer

Third Answer

Fourth Answer

The End Question

What makes man a man?


A paradigm is a set of fundamental principles that guides the thinking process. It is rooted on everyones biases and prejudice.

Whats your paradigm?

The Different Views About ANCIENT SOPHISTS PRE- Man







Challenge of the Study

Survey all the answers to the question What makes a man, man?. What is most important here in finding the answer is not the answer itself rather the process of finding the answer. The process of thinking is philosophy and philosophizing itself.

Points for Human Perfection

Any search must start in finding the right question, before looking for the right answer. Everyone has his own prejudice and bias. So it is important to be open-minded of all the choices before selecting one idea. There is no selection without choices. Respect is the secret in the world of differences.

Words to Ponder

MAN cannot discover new OCEANS unless he has the COURAGE to lose sight of the shore.

- Andre Gide

Activity 2

Me in the eyes of the other. Oral Discourse



Truth springs from argument amongst friends. - David Hume


Poet-theologians were the authority in explaining things before the coming of the philosophers. Myths and fables were primarily used on their explanations which are centered basically on the concept of the gods. During the time of the philosophers explanation shifted to rational discourse.

The Beginning of the First Philosophy

THALES 624-546 B.C.

The history of thought became different when Thales calculated an eclipse and he challenged the prevailing belief at that time, that this event will occur at a particular time not because of the will of the gods but because it is mathematically possible. The people of Miletus waited for the event with bated breath and anticipated Thales humiliation, but the eclipse occurred. From then on, reason claims its place in human history. This also signals the beginning of Philosophy. Thales was considered the first philosopher and one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece.

The Problem of One and the Many

Thales became widely recognized after he predicted the eclipse and was asked What the origin of everything was?. Thales believed that water was the source of everything. This was based on his observation from living in an island. He also believed that human life starts and ends with water.

Anaximander (610-546 B.C.)

He proposed that everything was made out of aperion or boundless. This is based on the belief that there is a series of causes which will end up to an endless search.

Anaximenes (585-528 B.C.)

He believed that air is the origin of everything. Convinced by the idea of Thales, Anaximenes says that every water will end up as air in the end.

Heraclitus (504-501 B.C.)

He believes that what is common and basic foundation of nature is change. For him nothing will last forever. The only thing that will remain in this world is change. The end of one signals the beginning of the other. He suggested that human relation is not excluded from this reality. He said that One cannot step on the same river twice.

Empedocles (490-430 B.C.) He declared a cessation to Heraclitus claim by saying that if there are things that start with water, air, fire and earth, then let these four stand as the origin of everything. He tried to end the dispute by simply acknowledging the idea of everyone.

Points for Human Perfection

Risk is very important before all changes happen. Criticisms and suggestions are very important aspects of development. They acknowledge the strength of any idea and reveals points for improvement. Innovation symbolizes development.

Activity 3

Let us Help Each Other Oral Discourse

Our SHORTCOMINGS are the EYES with which we see the IDEAL. - Freidrich Nietzsche



The real fault is to have FAULTS and not to amend them. -Confucuis


The sophists are basically the teachers of the Ancient Greek. Before the establishment of the schools, colleges and universities, formal education is basically dependent on the travelling teachers- the sophists. They just walk from place to place to teach whoever is willing to learn from them.

The Birth of Sophistry

Sophists are equated to those teachers or thinkers who are into a free and neutral enterprise of thinking simply to attain knowledge for the sake of wisdom. They would teach virtue for the sake of good and no other things in return. For them, certainty or truth is necessary and attainable.

The Birth of Sophistry

Sophists deals with those teachers who are into teaching as a profession as they teach for free. These new brand of teachers shifted their attention to human relation. They offer they students the techniques on hw to be successful, gain power, and prestige . To them, authentic knowledge is unattainable, what is important is how to manipulate ones learning to attain ones goal in life.

Protagoras (490-420 BC)

Of all the available teachers in Athens that time, Protagoras holds the position highest in rank. He is considered the torch bearer of the new brand of sophism.

Protagoras Arguments

Man is the measure of all things. A good argument can be made worse and a worse argument can be made good. We cannot prove or deny the existence of god.

Georgias (485-380 BC) In the absence of the best sophist who is Protagoras, Georgias is the next in line. He was also suspicious of the presence of truth. He denied the presence of truth in different forms as created by man.

Georgias Arguments

Nothing exists. If anything existed, it cannot be known by man. If it cannot be known, it cannot be transmitted and explained to others.

Trasymachus (459-400 BC) Focused more on human relation. For him, justice is created in the service of those who are powerful. Justice, therefore, is not an ally of the common good.


Fallacy is derived from the Greek word fallere which means to deceive. Fallacies are used to win an argument or to get the attention of the crowd in any gathering or assembly. Structural fallacy deals with the pattern and structure of the argument. Fallacies of content focus more on the content or presentation of the message.

Appeal to emotion Prestige Jargon Misuse of Authority Rationalization Argumentum ad Baculum (use of threat) Argumentum ad Hominen (argument against the person) False Dilemma Argument of the Beard

Slippery slope Fallacy of the composition Fallacy of division Appeal to ignorance Two wrongs make right Confident manner Lifting out of the content

Points for Human Perfection

There is always something good which will come from any experience. Being familiar with the fallacies does not open us to the possibility of using such. It keeps us reminded and alert when someone is already employing it. Language is not a mere play of sounds. It conveys message that has truthfulness of the language used.



Socrates (469-399 BC)

All I know is that I know nothing

Socrates (469-399 BC)

Was considered the wisest man who ever lived. He acknowledged that a man has limitations and cannot know infinite knowledge. His main contribution is the dialectic or the Socratic method. Reason for him is what separates man from the beasts.

Reasons for being summoned to courts

Denying the traditional gods for him reason is the highest ideal, so God must be in the form of reason. Corrupting the minds of the youth


man has rationality which is very distinct and unique. Knowing is doing on how to be a good man, if you know the good then do good Rationality is humanity know thyself, regulate and control oneself against wordly desires. unexamined life is not worth living, reflection and examination is important.

Plato (427-347 BC)

One of the best students of Socrates. Built the school Academy which became the pioneer and model of the formal schools of today where the youth stay and study. let no one enter here without the knowledge in Geometry

Idea about Man

It is necessary to deal with metaphysics first before dealing with the theory of man. There are two types of reality- the world of forms and the world of particulars. What is real is found in the world of forms or in the ideas of god. It is unchanging and perfect. What we have at present is the world of particulars- changing and imperfect.

Man is composed of form (soul) and of particular (body). Soul is unchanging and perfect and real. The body is changing and is sharing its perfection to the reality of the soul. The soul is immortal in nature.

How to be a GOOD MAN?

Body and soul are two distinct realities. Man is purely soul before it united with the body. Soul is imprisoned in the body which is prone to sensible pleasure, passions and ignorance. The purpose of man is to free the soul from the body.

The fullness of life of man will be attained only when the soul as the essence of man is freed from the body. Man is composed of three faculties: REASON, SPIRIT and APPETITES
REASON Drive to reach genuine wisdom Impulse towards beauty and goodness Drives for pleasures of the body wisdom





Reason must be the superior in order to free the soul from the body. Man must have wisdom as superior to control reason. Courage is to direct ones spirit Temperance is to control pleasure seeking drive of the body embedded on his appetites.

Man and society have the same components that need the same virtue to attain harmony.

Aristotle (384-322 BC)

After Platos death, he left the Academy. Devoted his time to teaching and the study of the natural sciences. He was summoned by Philip of Macedon to educate his son, who became one of the greatest conquerors who ever livedAlexander the Great. Founded Lyceum, in honor of Apollo Lyceus, which became the rival of the Academy

Idea about Man

The sensible world is the real world- the practical one. Everything is composed of form and matter. The matter is capable of changing because it is composed of many accidence. The principle of actuality and potentiality.

Actuality and Potentiality

Actuality is the current state or form, while potentiality is the capability of becoming a matter.

3 Functions of Life

VEGETATIVE refers to the capacity to reproduce, develop, and grow SENSITIVE refers to the capacity of the operation of senses, feelings and movements INTELLECTIVE refers to the capacity to think, reason out, contemplate and choose

The Perfect Man

For Plato, the perfect man is in the world of ideas. For Aristotle, the perfect man is the one using his intellect. Man as we see in experience is the real man for Aristotle. His intellect is the form, while his body is the matter. Changes in the body are due to potentiality within him, but doesnt change his essence of being man.

How to be a GOOD MAN?

Intellect is equated to virtue. If man uses his intellect, the result or end (telos) will be good. The highest act of the intellect is not just understanding the natural world but contemplating the divine, to get near to his origin.

In human relation, man must follow the virtue of the mean also know as the middle. Man must avoid the extremes. Any deprivation and excess is bad.

Is it alright to rob a bank provided that the robber will get just what is appropriate for his needs?

Points for Human Perfection

One should not boast about ones learning or achievement because the real sign of wisdom is humility. It is good to look for what is ideal in life or to change others. But it is better if one starts with himself the good and change what he wants others to do.

Points for Human Perfection

Man must have the capacity to think for human perfection. In respecting someone, we are not only respecting his current human status but also the potentiality within him. In the virtue of the mean, all excess, defects and deprivation is a sign of weakness.

The Man in the Image of God

The Medieval Era

Is the period between the ancient and modern period. Commonly known as the Christian Age because it marks the rise of the church. Brilliant Moro or Muslim scholars also emerged.

St. Thomas Aquinas , The Angelic Doctor

He is from a wealthy family in Aquino, Rome. His family was against his decision to enter the seminary and be a priest. He was kidnapped by his own family and brought to a far away place to disconnect him from his religious undertakings His teachings are mainly embodied in his two monumental works: the Summa Theologica and Summa Contra Gentiles

Aquinas followed the teachings of Aristotle, but saw farther beyond the vision of Aristotle who relied on the natural powers of human reason and experience in his search for truth. There are truth that cannot be known by human reason alone and which can be received only by the aid of light of divine revelation.

The Two Truths

Those known through reason, and The divinely revealed truths can never contradict each other, because they emanate from the same source, God, who is TRUTH itself.

Idea about Man

God created man according to his image and likeness.

The Four Implications

FIRST God exists. Knowing God is both available through faith and reason. He believes that it is not only in faith that the nature of God can be conceived. If someone is looking for a rational explanation for Gods existence one should consider his five proofs of the existence of God.

Argument from Motion movement is the indication of life. Life and motion is everywhere. There should be a movement from the start. Such movement should be caused by the Unmoved Mover who is God. Argument from Cause in nature, everything comes from something. But there couldnt be a series of infinite cause. There must be the cause of the first cause. Since infinite series of causes is impossible, there must be a God who is the Uncaused Cause.

Argument from possibility and necessity there are things that are present yet not necessary. Like man, it could be there is no man yet there is man. So knowing that they are not necessary, there must be knowledge of what is necessary which is not a possibility but a necessity. If that necessary is a necessity, then such Necessary Being is God.

Argument from the gradation of Being we experience a person whose knowledge is unbelievable. After a while we will find another who is more knowledgeable than the previous man weve met. One who possesses a superlative degree of quality, one who is the best, he must be the perfect being who is God.

Argument from design looking at the beauty of the universe is a source of amusement and inspiration for some. There is not a hint of irregularity in this otherwise harmonious universe. There must be great designer, the Governor of the world who is God.

SECOND Man exists. Man is created by God. In all occasions, the creator is higher than the created. Therefore man is not God. The creation of man by God is not a right but a privilege or a gift given to him by his creator.

THIRD Man As a Special Creature man is created in the image and the likeness of God. This makes man higher than other creatures. Since God is good, his creation is also good. God gave man the freedom of choice to will and act according to his rationality.

FOURTH Man and His Duty According to St. Thomas, it is the role of man to bring back to God all these gifts. The purposes of man therefore are to: know, love and serve God. Question: In what way can man love and serve God?

How to be A Good Man?

Responsibility: Human Act and Act of Man Human Act Components: 1. Knowledge 2. Freedom 3. Voluntariness Act of man is the omission of any of the criteria of Human Act fueled by sensation.

Modifiers of Human Act

Ignorance the absence of knowledge A. Vincible Ignorance absence of knowledge of what should be known which can be easily be solved through the light of reason. Invincible Ignorance the absence of knowledge about what should be known but cannot be easily solved by reasoning.

Affected Ignorance it happens when the agent voluntarily wants to be ignorant to escape from possible sanction RULES: 1. V.I does not destroy but somehow lessens the voluntariness and responsibility of the agent. 2. I.I destroys the voluntariness of an act. 3. A.I does not exempt the agent to the consequence of his action. It basically increases the culpability of the agent.

CONCUPISCENCE (PASSIONS)- these are strong bodily tendencies and emotions such as anger, happiness, excitement, love, hatred, desire, horror, delight, hope, despair, bravery and fear. 1. Antecedent happens spontaneously with an event that it paralyzes the judgment of reason. 2. consequent is present when a traumatic or undesirable event planned something to avenge such experience

FEAR is the heightened emotion brought about by a foreseeable danger. It is separated from passion because with the apprehension of the mind of the coming danger, there is already a mental reasoning. It could be a an act with fear or in spite of fear- when one willfully performs an act even if he is afraid. An act done from fear or through fearwhen a person does an act because of a possible danger to be done to him or to others.

VIOLENCE is the application of force on a person compelling him to do things against his will. Acts out of violence is always involuntary.

HABIT is the repetition of the same activity over time. If the act is positive, it is considered virtue, if it is negative, then it belongs to vice. Time seems to be a culprit on the aspect of habit because it seems that the longer a person does an act it appears the act is acceptable and good. But in reality, time has nothing to do with the goodness of an act. Habit is always involuntary.

When is an act good or bad?

An act is good if it is an accordance with reason, and bad is against reason. Reason is the characteristics of man which separates him from other creatures. Object (act itself) must be in accordance with reason Intention (end) the end the agent wants to achieve Circumstances are the conditions surrounding an act.

Principle of Double Effect

A graduating student found out that she is pregnant. She has to decide if she will continue pregnancy (which according to the doctor is very sensitive) or abort the baby. If she will continue the pregnancy, the baby will live but her studies will be sacrificed. On the other hand, if she will abort the baby, she can focus on her studies, but the baby will be greatly affected


The acts must be good in itself or at least indifferent The good effect must precede the evil The intention must be good There must be a proportionate grave act reason in doing the

Aquinas Philosophy of Happiness

Aquinas taught that man naturally longs for perfection and happiness and that this longing can be realized on earth with the full and optimal development of all mans powers, - rational, moral, social, emotional, physical. The immortality of the human soul which all men seek can be found in God alone.

Transcendental Vision of Man

According to St. Thomas and the Christian teaching, man in his present state of existence on earth is mortal, finite and imperfect; but with the attainment of his supreme purpose and union with God, he is elevated to the rank of the Divine. The Immortal. The Perfect. The immortality of the human soul.


Man and Reason

Prevailing Conditions During the Ancient and Medieval Periods

Production of books is simply done by writing manually Discussion and exchange of ideas were limited The nobles and the priests were authorities in the search for truth

Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

Ren Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic. W Born: March 31, 1596, Descartes, Indre-et-Loire, France Died: February 11, 1650, Stockholm, Sweden Nationality: French Education: Prytane National Militaire,University of Poitiers Parents: Joachim Descartes, Jeanne Brochard

Rene Descartes is considered the Father of Modern Philosophy. He is a scientist and mathematician by profession. He considered the ancient and medieval period as pathetic. He asked for the foundation of truth which is certain and cannot be falsified in whatever case.

Idea about Man

cogito ergo sum I think therefore I am. Cogito or the thinking being is the foundation of truth. It is the only truth that is certain and cannot be doubted.

Descartes Conjecture

When you are thinking then one thing is for sure, that there is someone who is thinking. So, if you doubt that you are thinking, the process of doubting is a proof that you are thinking. Therefore, someone is thinking. If someone is thinking, then he is existing. What is existing is the mind, will or consciousness. The Modern Man is the thinking being.

The Mind and Body Problem

The dichotomy between the mind and body evolved from the discovery of self in the philosophy of Descartes. The mind or consciousness can exist even without the body. The mind and the body are two distinct substances.

The Pineal Gland

The pineal gland is a pine cone shaped gland of the endocrine system. A structure of the diencephalon of the brain, the pineal gland produces several important hormones including melatonin. Melatonin influences sexual development and sleep-wake cycles. The pineal gland is composed of cells called pinealocytes and cells of the nervous system called glial cells. The pineal gland connects the endocrine system with the nervous system in that it converts nerve signals from the sympathetic system of the peripheral nervous system into hormone signals. Function: The pineal gland is involved in several functions of the body including: Secretion of the Hormone Melatonin Regulation of Endocrine Functions Conversion of Nervous System Signals to Endocrine Signals Causes Feeling of Sleepiness Influences Sexual Development Location: Directionally, the pineal gland is situated between thecerebral hemispheres, attached to the third ventricle.

Implications of Descartes Discovery

The body has been labeled inferior to the mind. What you are and what you can are determined by what you know. The new man has a big mind but with a weak body.

How to be a Good Man?

Modernism talks about reason and certainty. It has opened the doors to the development of science. Everything is measured to the decree of scientific method. Outside the scientific method lies falsity. To be a good man is to use ones reason, and be rational.

One needs to be exact and specific. Something which cannot be measured and observed is questionable. Acts done without reason is a malicious act. Believing is measured according to evidences and not on the basis of impulse of emotion. Man has to earn a degree.

John Locke (1632-1707)

John Locke FRS, widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Born: August 29, 1632, Wrington, United Kingdom Died: October 28, 1704, Essex, United Kingdom Nationality: British Education: Westminster School,University of Oxford, Christ Church, Oxford Parents: Agnes Keene, John Locke

Modern Philosophy has been a wrestling match between the rationalists and the empiricists. Descartes laid the foundation for the rationalists. John Locke is the forefront of the empiricists. Lockes works cover ideas in medicine, science, politics, religion, and philosophy.

On Human Knowledge

Locke is convinced that the human brain is in a blank state or tabula rasa from the moment of birth. A direct contradiction to Descartes belief that there is an innate knowledge on human soul planted by God. Locke conjectured that there is nothing in the intellect that was not previously in the senses.

Through experience, mind acquires ideas which are later turned into knowledge or what we know. Ideas are any materials brought about by experience to the mind. Experience has two aspects: first are the sensation of everything and process outside the mind. Second is a reflection which is all about the mental process that makes everyone to be conscious and see the connections of ideas.

Idea about Human Nature

Man for Locke is basically good and driven by his natural inclination to reason. Mans rationality makes him aware of his rights. Locke believes that man is capable of ruling himself because he is naturally good. His reason is sufficient enough to look for what is good for himself and the common good.

Self-rule does not pertain to anarchy. Locke acknowledges that government is still necessary to regulate man, but government is not an authority powerful than people, instead it is just a contract created by the people by submitting some of their rights so that regulation for the sake of the common good will be attained. The will of the people stands higher than any form of government

How to be a Good Man?

Since mind is in the state of blank slate or tabula rasa, it is very important for Locke to be cautious in the process of educating the youth. Experiences during the infancy and younger years are very important because they set the foundation of ones self. The youth will be easily corrupted without proper guidance in education.

Immanuel Kant (1774-1804)

Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who is widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that human concepts and categories structure our view of the world and its laws, and that reason is the source of morality. Born: April 22, 1724, Knigsberg, Germany Died: February 12, 1804, Knigsberg, Germany Nationality: German Education: University of Knigsberg Parents: Johann Georg Kant, Regina Dorothea Reuter

Immanuel Kant is a man who practices what he preach. He advocates coherence, validity and rationality. The Philosophers Walk is a street named after Immanuel Kant. His philosophy states that there is really truth which can be known through the senses which is called phenomena. Things which cannot be known by the senses are called noumena or the thing in itself.

He is bridging the claim of the rationalist that knowledge is innate and can be deduced through reason alone and that of the empiricist that knowledge is known only in the aspect of experience. On the other hand, he is saying that man cant know, such as God, immortality and freedom. Though some things are not knowable, it is important also to maintain the belief on them for the sake of morality.

Idea about Man

Man has gift of reason and free will. Man has knowledge to decide what to do and what not to do. Man should be treated as equal. Equality should be based on the dignity of man himself. Man should be treated fairly independent of his height, color, family and other attributes.

How to be a Good Man?

Only acts preceded from reason is moral. Anything done and should be done out of rational decision is good. Categorical Imperative the rational act based on duty to do what is good for the sake of good. Doing good is good because it is mans duty and it is what his nature dictates as natural.

Categorical Imperative

Laws of Universality something is good if whoever in such position will do the act. That, whatever is the case, the act is still good. Rape as an act Giving water to the thirsty as an act

Man is always an End every act shows the dignity of the actor as rational so his act must be directed to the good of a fellow dignified individual. It is not good to use someone just a means in attaining an end. Prostitution Helping townsfolk in return of votes The good Samaritan

Self Autonomy of Man- since categorical imperative is universal it is important to specify a criteria about who are subject to it and how it should be applied. The criterion is not written in any holy book but with every nature of man. Man has moral duty. The denial of ones nature. Categorical imperative is rooted on mans reason and goodwill.

Post Modernism

Man and Society

Post Modernism Period

This is an era in the western history of thought which the main project is questioning the validity, truth, and meaning of thing believed. Everyone is called to be suspicious and everything must be clarified and put into question. It deconstructs the dogmatic style of the medieval and the arrogance of reason of the modern.

This time in the history of thought open the ground to the idea of the others. Recognized pluralism and indeterminacy which is in contrast with the advocacy of the modern. The Masters of Suspicions were born in this era.

Karl Marx (1818-1883)

Karl Heinrich Marx was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist.

Marxs Concept
Period in History Ancient Medieval Modern Post-Modern

Means of Production
Owner of the Means of Production Abused

Common Property None

King/Queen Priests Commoners



Workers Workers *coming of the machines

Effects to Humanity

There is the equal distribution of wealth

King and Queen holds the power, uneven distribution of wealth

Still the gap between rich and poor is overwhelming

There is a culture of inclusion and exclusion in coming of information and money

For Marx, economics is the driving force of history. That is why whoever is the owner of the means of production is also the one holding the direction of history. Marx is convinced that the world is divided by the those who have and the those who have not. Those who have are the bourgeoisie or the owner of the means of production. Those who have not are the proletariat or the workers.

With the play of power, Marx is suspicious of the super structure in the society such as the government, church, academe, and the media. He called these institutions as instruments of those who-have to legitimize their power and property. These structures are called the Ideological State Apparatuses (according to Louis Althusser). This ensure power of the bourgeoisie over the means of production.

The government legitimizes the ownership of one hundred hectares of land by a certain business man. The church holds the moral ascendancy to convince the workers that it is not good to get the wealth of another, whatever is the case. She conditions the mind of the people to focus on the heavenly. Marx called the church as the opium of the people. The academe provides information to create needs, and conditions the minds of the workers to support the capitalist society.

Education is only for those who can afford. Those who study, create their own business or work in the higher positions are also those who are rich. Marx says that there is something wrong in the society.

Human Nature and Alienation in Capitalism

Human labor is what makes and gives man dignity and worth. Mans work, place of work, time of work, and nature of work determine his humanity. Marx is suspicious of capitalism by simply saying that this style alienates man from his nature on the following ways:

Alienation to self
In any business establishment, the workers are called in numbers or codes, reducing them to a piece of material in a workplace.

Alienation of Nature

Man is a social being. He is rational. But in the workplace man is not allowed to talk or chat with each other. A call center agent will work from 5 pm to 2 am. After working will go home and eat. If he has wife, will have sex and he will sleep. After waking up hell work again. Man is reduced to a working animal.

Alienation to others

In the workplace, individual productivity is a must. Socialization is not an option. The social animal is domesticated to be alone, separating him from the rest of the society.

Alienation from the product of Labor

For Marx, everyone is an artist. The product of his labor is the manifestation of his creative art. One can feel the pride by looking at the product of his work. In the capitalist assembly line there is the distribution of work. One stays at the his job alone and one cannot see the product of his labor.

What is a Good Man?

If labor or work gives the essence of being a man, it is necessary to make everything related to work desirable. The first step is to secure that man is free from the four aspects of alienation. He must be given a work that will not reduce him to a machine. He must have time to socialize with others even at work.

He must recognize the fruit of his labor at the end of the day. He should be given time to develop his full potential and fulfill his responsibility as a worker, as a citizen, family man and a human being. For Marx, if the conditions are not satisfied in the workplace, it is the duty of the workers to unite. workers of all nations unite, you have nothing to lose except your chains

Friedrich Nietzche (1884-1900)

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a German philologist, philosopher, cultural critic, poet and composer.

The height of postmodernism started when Nietzche declared that God is dead. It has opened the ground for new philosophy because God is equated to the center of the standard such as (Nature in ancient, God in medieval, Reason in modern) which dictate the truth and good in history. For Nietzche, these centers are simply founded by those individuals who are pursuing their will to power before and have no absolute or unchanging foundation.

According to Nietzche, there is no need for center now. No one needs to dictate the truth. Everything could be a center, everyone can tell the basis of truth so as long as the person is pursuing his will for power. For Nietzche, the tales of creation and the saga of salvation are not viable stories anymore. He believes that religion is something to be destroyed because it simply bars man from developing his full potential.

Man and the Will to Power

Will to power is the principle in which everything is to be understood and finally to be reduced in Nietzches philosophy. It is the fundamental value and essence of life of every being. where there is life is there will, not will to life but will to power, a struggle for domination of ones self and of the others. It starts with the fulfillment of ones potential and the assertion of ones will towards life.

There is no point in human history where there is no play of power. Everything manifests power. Everything asserts itself for power and dominance. The whole world is a will to power. It is not self preservation that matters most rather the will to power in human relation. People risk their lives just for the sake of power. The will to power is not only for the noble, strong, and the aristocrats, even the weak.

The will of the strong can be easily seen, and the will of the weak manifests itself in hidden and subtle ways. Everyone is driven by the desire for power. Hidden in every act of the weak is the will to dominate and to overpower the strong.

Critic on Religion

Nietzche regarded religion, specifically Christianity, as the most fatal and seductive lie that has ever existed. Religion disabled mans drive for power and drive for self development. Through religion, man created someone [God] greater than him and gave his future to this created one.

Nietzche denounces religion as he say I beseech you my brothers remain faithful to the earth, do not believe those who speak of other worldly hopes. God is dead doesnt mean that God once existed and died. It simply means that the idea of God as the powerful, giver and saviour of mankind is not anymore needed. There is no one supreme powerful God; rather there is only the will of man which created this Supreme Being.

According to Nietzche, it is therefore the right time for man to set higher ideals for himself and achieve the fullest of his potential which was corrupted in the coming of god. Religion is nothing but a means of attaining ones will power too. There is nothing in Chriatianity which is not used by the priests to foster their will to power.

The priests have taught the kind of morality which considered them as the highest type of men. Men must follow the priests who found the perfect status of being man. The elevation of themselves [priests] means the temperament to maintain their power and their position. Religion only fosters two choices: follow and be saved or disobey and suffer from eternal damnation.

According to Nietzche, fear is the principle behinf the gist of religions doctrine. This can make nay man what they want him to be.

Critic on Morality

The collapse of religion is also the collapse of morality. The denial of the existence of God is also the denial of the existence of truth and of the foundation of good. There is nothing now that the morality can claim as its basis and foundation, which is unchanging.

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding Father of psychoanalysis.


Psychoanalysis is the method of psychological investigation, in which it attempts to elucidate repressed mental impulses in a patient. This theory proposes the solution to mental problems through the process of talking or talk cure as initially known.

Man and His Nature

There are three elements in man as a combination of body and Psyche. The id, ego and super ego.

The id

The id is the basic mans desire for pleasure. Sex is the most fundamental, that even the development of man is rooted on his sexual drive. For Freud, sexual drive is not necessarily of the opposite sex but basically for everyone.

The super ego

Super ego focuses on the morality recognized by the society. It is the drive to follow the demands of the society. For Freud, this drive controls the basic inclination of man. Society is detrimental to man and might cause him unhappiness because of unnecessary laws and guidelines.

The ego

The ego is the rational aspect of man which the main function is to balance the tug of war between the drive and the moral ascendancy. it follows that man is good only if his rational aspect has the power to control the demand of the society and to balance it with his personal desire.

Points for Human Perfection

Mans work has something to do with his dignity. Attaining ones full potential is the project of everyone. One should be suspicious of the demand of the society.

Eastern Philosophy

Man and Nature

Eastern Philosophy

Asian or Oriental Philosophy The thoughts and traditions on the eastern side of the globe, which is Asia

Mohammed and the Arab Expansion Mohammed (AD 570632), a native of Mecca, provided the religion that became the immediate stimulus to Arab expansion. As a young man, he made his living as a camel driver and a petty merchant. During his travels, he learned a few but fundamental Judaism and Christian beliefs.

Hegira or the flight to Medina marked the beginning of the rapid expansion of Mohammedism, for a short period of time, Mohammed became the ruler of Medina, and by the time of his death, he won control of his native Mecca. The Caliphs, successor to the Prophet, united Arab tribesmen for the conquest of Syria and Mesopotamia. Seized the eastern provinces of the Byzantine Empire and conquered the Persian Empire. Almost half of the Old Roman Empire fell under Arab might.


Muslim is the term used to denote those who are believers of Islam. They considered Allah as their supreme being. Muhammad is considered the last prophet of Islam. He was approached by Angel Gabriel who handed him down the Koran or the Holy Book and gave him task to propagate the teachings of the Koran. From then on, he started to preach and formed the first Islam community in Medina.

The very word Islam means peace, purity, submission, and obedience. In religious sense, Islam means submission to the Will of Allah and obedience to His Law. It follows that every Muslim should abide to the said principle and teaching. The Hamurabi Code, which follows the rule an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth, made it hard for Mohammed to preach and propagate Islam.

Islamic Beliefs and Practices

The Five Pillars of Islam

There is no God but Allah and Mohammed the Prophet. A Moslem must pray at designated hours of the day, facing Mecca. he must, if possible, make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in his lifetime. He must give alms to the poor and needy. He must fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan- the ninth month of the Moslem year.

Like Christians, there will be the DAY OF JUDGMENT when Muslims will be judged on the basis of their deeds while on earth and will attain reward of Paradise or punishment in Hell. They do not believe that Christ or any individual can atone for another persons sin. Hell is where unbelievers and sinners spend eternity. The Koran, 98:1-8 states the unbelievers (infidels) among the People of the Book and the pagans shall burn for ever in the fire of Hell. They are the vilest of all creature.

The Nature of Islam

Misconceptions on Allah Muslims like the Jews reject the Christian belief of the Trinity and the Divine Incarnation. Judaism, Christianity and Islam all claim to be Abrahamic Faiths and are all monotheistic

The Arabic and Muslim Philosophy

The Arabs revived the Greek philosophy and it was through Kindi, Avicenna and Averroes that the West learnt about Aristotle, Plato and Socrates. The Abbasid Caliphate provided the most accommodating atmosphere for the development of classical learning. The Caliph Harun-ar-Rashid had some of the works of Aristotle translated in Arabic. Mamun-ar-Rashid founded the well-known Darul Hukama (House of Wisdom).

Al-Kindi (d/873 AD) the greatest philosopher of the Arab race. Divine intelligence is the Cause of the existence in the world. Zakariya Al-Razi (865-925 AD) the eminent physician and an Islamic scientist composed a number of metaphysical, philosophical and ethical works which profess the existence of five eternal principles- Creator, the soul, matter, time and space. Avicenna (Ibn Sina)(980-1037 AD) the doctrine of immortality. the soul and knowledge emanante from Active intelligence, and that soul is an indivisible and eternal substance. Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111 AD) Averroes (Ibn Rushd)(1126-1198AD) The Incoherence of the Incoherence

What Makes a Good Muslim?

The 5 Pillars of Islam Shahadah (Declaration of Faith) Salat (Prayer) Zakat (Alms Giving) Saum or Siyam (Fasting and Abstinence) Hajj (Pilgrimage)


Siddhartha Gautama

Is the founder of Buddhism. He was born prince in India and was expected to be a political leader. He was given everything he ever wanted in life. One life-changing experience altered the course of his life.

On his way to the park, he encountered these four:

An old man Sick man Dead man Monk At the age of 29, he left the palace and lived an acetic life. After 6 long years he went down from the mountain with his discovery.

The Fourfold Noble Truth

Life is a suffering (DUKKHA) Suffering has cause (SAMUDAYA) Suffering can cease (NIRODHA) There is a path to the Cessation of Suffering (MAGGA)

The Eightfold Path

Right Right Right Right

View Aspiration Speech Action

Right Right Right Right

Livelihood Effort Mindfulness Contemplation

Karma and Interdependent Origination

Karma is the underlying principle in all Buddhist thought. It states that any voluntary action has its effects. Karma is both positive and negative. It may happen within this life or to the next life to come. Karma sets the condition for the future life. Karma operates within the cycle of the present, past and future which is commonly known as the interdependent origination.

Interdependent origination means everything and everyone is a web of interconnection, and every part of the web expresses and reflects every other part. Ignorance is the beginning of this origination. ignorance is the root of all evil, unless ignorance is overcome, man will never be able to free himself from dukkha, because it is the root of all evil, dukkha folllows inevitably where ignorance reigns.

12 Stages of the Cycle of Origination

Ignorance Volitional formations Consciousness Mind-and-form Sense-bases contact

Feeling Craving Clinging Becoming Birth Old-age-and-death


Or Master Kung was a justice minister during his time. He was worried because people were not concerned with the welfare of the society China was disintegrated. what you do not like when done into yourself, do not do unto others

Idea about Man

To live and be a man is a blessing for Confucius Goodness can be fully realized in a society. The society must be established to create a conducive nature for human relation. For him, the society should be comprised of three elements: people, wealth and education.

Jen or the basic goodness of man. No man is born bad and indifferent, even the worst person has the goodness within. Only when every one acknowledges the goodness within, there will be no problem in the society.

How to be a Good Man?

Rule of Propriety (li) Rule of Righteousness (yi) Filial Piety (Hsiao) Rectification of Names (Ching Meng)


Lao Tsu

Is considered the founder of Taoism. Tao Te Ching is the book which contains all his teachings/ Tao is interpreted as the way or path


Everything in the universe is within the complementary principle of yin and yang. The symmetrical disposition of the dark Yin and the light Yang suggest interdependence of the two principles. Yin is the negative power which is associated with the earth, in human relation, yin is female, who is quiet and intuitive. Yang is the positive which is associated with heaven. Other characteristics of Yang are male, strong and creative. There is an eternal cycle between heaven and earth, male and female, or hot and cold. Dots indicate that within each is the seed of the other.

How to be a Good Man?

Taoism advocates that the body is the microcosm of the universe. Thus, the body needs to be aligned with the harmony of the universe. Man should learn to exist naturally and without effort. Man should practice the wei-wu-wei or the virtue of doing without doing or the effortless action or acting without acting When one is acting or influencing others without forcing himself on others. Modelling by example.

Three Jewels of the Tao

Comapssion Moderation


Points for Human Perfection

There are many ways on how to do what is good, but in the end these ways are simply pertaining to one good divided by different names and symbols There is goodness in everyone. Respect in anothers belief is in the rule of cultural diversity.

Activity 16

One With the World Man is not the superior of all creations. He is just one of them. Direction: Make a haiku about your belief regarding mans place in the universe.

Activity 17

Select 3 quotations from the given statements and clearly explain each by applying in real life situations. A superior man i s modest in his speech, but exceeds in his actions. Confucius The mind is everything. What you think you become. Buddha You will not be punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger. Buddha He knows that enough is enough will always have enough. Lao Tzu The journey of a thousand miles begin with one step. Lao Tzu