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Language: refers to vocabulary & syntax

independent of mode of production or


Speech: actual production

Vocalization: production of sound without

linguistic content
Language areas of brain
Broca’s area: anterior speech area
Location- 3rd frontal gyrus
Detailed and co-ordinated pattern of vocalization
Wernicke’s area: posterior speech area/
sensory area of speech
Location: Temporal lobe
Comprehension of speech

Dejerine’s area: area 39

Location: angular gyrus

Exner’s area: Motor writing centre

Location: Middle frontal gyrus of categorical
Types of speech
1. Spoken speech:
understanding spoken words &
expressing ideas in speech
3. Written speech:
understanding written words and
expressing ideas in writing
Mechanism of speech

Primary auditory cortex/primary visual area

Auditory/visual association areas

Dejerine’s area

Wernicke’s area
Arcuate fasciculus

Broca’s area

Exner’s area

Motor area

Comprehension of written speech and vocalization
Speech/Language Disorders
Aphasias: Abnormalities of language
functions not due to defects of vision,
hearing or motor system
3. Fluent aphasia
4. Non-fluent aphasia
5. Anomic aphasia
Fluent aphasia (sensory aphasia):
Injury to wernicke’s area
Conduction aphasia- lesions in & around
auditory cortex
Talks excessively without sense
Phonemic paraphasias
“I went to the…..they brought me to the
place where….it wasn’t the one that”
Nonfluent aphasia (Motor aphasia):
Slow & effortful
No grammar
Telegraphic speech
Incorrect writing
Good comprehension
Anomic aphasia:
Injury to angular gyrus
Difficulty in understanding written language
and pictures

Global aphasia:
Injury to both broca’s & wernicke’s area
Impaired ability to read
Phonemic deficit
Artists, musicians, mathematicians

Imperfect vocalization
Defect in motor areas & their connections
Recognition of face
• Right inferior temporal lobe
• Prosopagnosia
• Autonomic changes
Cerebral Dominance
• Categorical hemisphere- analytic
• Representational hemisphere- visuospatial
• 90% left hemisphere is categorical
• 70% of left handed have left hemisphere
Lesions of categorical hemisphere:
Language disorders
Disturbed and depressed
Lesions of representational hemisphere:
Astereognosis & other agnosias
Unconcerned and euphoric