Production planning - Stitch classes & Seam types.

Mandeep kaur Taak FCT- NIFT Roll no : 28

Introduction to seams
 A seam can be defined as an application of series of

stitches or stitch types to one or several layers of material.  8 classes of seams are defined in the ISO classification. Seams are described as  flat  superimposed  lapped  bound  ornamental  A seam is load bearing and should be similar in physical properties to the material being sewn.

Flat seams
 In these seams sometimes called Butt Seams two

fabric edges flat or folded are brought together and oversewn with a zig-zag lockstitch chainstitch or covering stitch (Class 600).
 The purpose is to produce a join where no extra

thickness of fabric can be tolerated at the seam like in foundation garments.
 The looper thread(s) must be soft yet strong and the

cover thread may be decorative as well as strong

 The same seam type can also be sewn with stitch class 500 (Overedge stitch) or Combination stitches i. . stitch class 516) to create neat load bearing seams for lingerie shirts etc.e.  There are various types of seams within the SS class.  A superimposed seam can be sewn with a stitch 301 or 401 to create a simple seam.Superimposed Seams  These generally start with two or more pieces of material superimposed over each other and joined near an edge with one or more rows of stitches.

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 French seaming involves 2 stitching operations with an intervening folding operation .a flat folded seam with only one row of stitching visible on the top surface commonly used for rainwear.with edges overlapped plain or folded) and joined with one or more rows of stitches.Lapped seams  Two or more plies of material are lapped (i.e. .

 The Lap Felled type involves only one stitching operation - a strong seam with fabric edges protected from fraying.  Commonly used for making up jeans or similar garments. .

This produces a  neat edge on a seam exposed to view or to wear. .Bound Seams  These are formed by folding a binding strip over  the edge of the plies of material and joining  both edges of the binding to the material with  one or more rows of stitching.

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Ornamental seam  A series of stitches along a straight or curved line or following     an ornamental design on a single ply of material. The zigzag stitch length (coverage) must be adjusted to \ accommodate and prevent fabric from ravelling. It is used on a plain seam on woven or knit fabric. . this seam is made using machines with zigzag capability. More complex types include various forms of piping producing a raised line along the fabric surface.

Ornamental seam Right side Wrong side .

 The simplest of these operations is Serging Type 6.01.01 in which a cut edge of a single ply is reinforced by overedge stitching to neaten and prevent fraying Includes other popular methods of producing a neat edge like hemming and Blind Stitch hemming. .Edge Finishing seam  Finishing the edge of a single ply of material by folding it or covering it with a stitch.

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Seam quality issues .

Seam quality issues  Puckering  Seam grin  Seam slippage  Skipped stitches  Unbalanced stitches  Uneven spi .

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a gap is revealed between the two pieces of fabric revealing the thread in this gap. Corrective actions Increase stitching tensions Use a higher stitch rating .Seam Grin  When two pieces of fabric are pulled at right angles to the seam.

Happens mainly in this types of fabric : fabrics with low no. Corrective Actions Increase seam allowance Use a higher stitch density Opt for a lapped fell seam . of warp & weft yarns. The fabric on either side of the seam distorts as the fabric yarns slide away resulting in a permanent gap.Seam Slippage  A fabric related issue.

Seam Pucker  Tension pucker  Feed pucker  Shrinkage pucker  Fabric flagging .

 These threads on account of high stretch properties elongate more during sewing.  After sewing the threads recover from the stretched state pulling the fabric with it.Tension Pucker  Caused by high thread tension during sewing. More pronounced when synthetic threads are used. .  Remedy: Thread tensions have to be kept as low as possible.

 Remedy : Opting for advanced types of feed systems like compound or unison feed. .  The plies of fabric tend to slip over each other resulting in uneven feed leading to pucker.  Puller feed is more cost effective.Feed Pucker  Encountered when sewing very fine fabrics.

 The heat destabilizes the molecular structure of the thread causing it to contract. pulling the fabric with it.Shrinkage Pucker  Wash pucker . Ironing pucker .  More so when using cotton threads.normally happens when synthetic threads are used.during the wash process the thread in the seam shrinks.  Remedy Choosing threads with low shrinkage properties .

.Fabric Flagging  A machine related issue the throat plate aperture enlarges due to wear & tear while sewing the needle pushes the fabric through the aperture before penetrating the fabric this can also happen when the needle size (thickness) is changed and if the throat plate is not changed accordingly.  Remedy :throat plates must be changed at regular intervals after checking for wear & tear throat plates must be changed in accordance with the needle size even if there are no signs of wear & tear.

STITCH CLASSES .

DEFINITION  STITCH: Stitch is the formation of thread for purpose of making a seam. .

lockstitch  400 class – chain stitch  500 class – over edge stitch  600 class – flat stitch  Button hole stitches  Button sew stitches .handstitch  300 class .Different types of stitch classes  100 class – single thread chain stitch  200 class .

100 class stitches  Single Thread Chainstitches Using One Needle Thread and One Blind Looper. flaps.collars. .  Uses: for basting operations in positions such as edges. etc  This is a temperory stitch.

Bag closing. Hat construction. and Buttonsew . Basting.101 class stitch  Single Thread Chainstitches Using One Needle Thread and One Blind Looper  Typical uses. Linking.

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103 class stitch  Single Thread Chainstitches Using One Needle Thread and One Blind Looper  Typical uses. etc. . Blindstitch Hem on Cuffs. Bottoms.

Bottoms. etc. .104 class stitch  Single Thread Chainstitches Using One Needle Thread and One Blind Looper  Typical uses. Embroidery. Blindstitch Hem on Cuffs.

Stitch class 200  Single Thread Hand Sewn Stitches Using One Needle Thread.  class 201 stitch : formed by 2 needle thread  Uses: hand stitching .

202 class stitch  Single Thread Hand Stitch Using One Needle Thread  Typical uses. Basting. Tacking and Repairs .

Stitch class 205  Single Thread Stitch Using One Needle Thread  Typical uses. "Pick Stitch" Topstitch .

Stitch class 300  Two or more Thread Lock Stitches Using Needle Thread(s) and One Bobbin Hook Thread .

General Seaming. Topstitching. etc.Stitch class 301  Two Thread Lockstitch Using One Needle Thread and One Hook (bobbin) Thread  Typical uses. .

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Knits or Wovens where moderate stretch or greater coverage is required . Coverstitching. General Seaming.Stitch class 304  Two Thread Zig Zag Lockstitch Using One Needle Thread and One Hook (bobbin) Thread  Typical uses. Topstitching.

Stitch class 306  Two Thread Lockstitch Blindstitch Using One Needle Thread and One Hook (bobbin) Thread  Typical uses. Hemming or Seaming Lining to Shell Fabric .

Topstitching. Knits or Wovens where wide coverage or greater stretch is required  Typically used in foundation garments . Seaming. Coverstitching.Stitch class 315  Two Thread Three-Step Zig Zag Lockstitch Using One Needle Thread and One Hook (bobbin) Thread  Typical uses.

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Class stitch 400  Multi-Thread Chain Stitches Using One or More Needle Threads and One or More Looper Threads .

etc.Class stitch 401  Two Thread Chainstitch Using One Needle Thread and One Looper Thread  Typical uses. . Woven Lap-seams. Knit Seaming.

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Class stitch 404  Two Thread ZigZag Chainstitch Using One Needle Thread and One Looper Thread  Typical uses. Joining. Knit Topstitching. . etc.

Knit Seaming. Coverstitching where greater stretch is required. .Class stitch 406  Three Thread Chainstitch Using Two Needle Threads and One Looper Thread  Typical uses. Woven Lap-seams.

Class stitch 500  Multi-Thread OverEdge Chainstitches Using Needle Thread(s) and Looper Thread(s) .

Class stitch 501  One Thread Overedge Chainstitch Using One Needle and Two Blind Loopers  Typical uses. Two Looper Overedge Stitch for Decorative Serging (Covering) Raw Edges . One Needle.

Class stitch 502  Two Thread Overedge Chainstitch Using One Needle and One Looper Thread  Typical uses. One Needle. Two Looper Overedge Stitch for Serging (Covering) Raw Edges .

Stitch class 503  Two Thread Overedge Chainstitch Using One Needle and One Looper Thread  Typical uses. One Needle. Two Looper Overedge Stitch for Serging (Covering) Raw Edges  Thread Cross-over is on the Edge of the Fabric .

 Stitch has high elongation along the edge of the fabric .Stitch class 504  Three Thread Overedge Chainstitch Using One Needle and Two Looper Threads  Typical uses. Overedge stitch for Serging (Covering) Raw Edges and Light Seaming.

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