PIPE WAYS DESIGN PIPE WAYS The pipe way carries: All main process lines connecting distant

pieces of equipment. Relief and blow down headers. All lines leaving and entering the plant. Utility lines supplying steam, air, cooling water and inert gas to the plant.  Electrical and instrument cable trays    

PIPE WAYS DESIGN Pipe rack: Overhead piping supported on steel or concrete

PIPE WAYS DESIGN Pipe track: Above ground piping supported on concrete sleepers

Interconnection piping between process areas and offsite areas Effective utilization of plot plan area   . inevitably a number of lines are most conveniently grouped at the same elevation on a common structure.  In order to arrange the piping within a process unit and interconnecting piping between units.PIPE WAYS DESIGN Importance of rack in Layout.

 This configuration is based on the overall plant arrangement. It takes various shapes such as straight. . “L”. or even “U”.”C”.”T”.PIPE WAYS DESIGN Configuration:  The pipe rack splits the plant into convenient parts.

PIPE WAYS DESIGN “L” configuration “T” configuration .

PIPE WAYS DESIGN “U” configuration Combination of shapes .


.PIPE WAYS DESIGN Development of the pipe racks: First step is the generation of the line routing diagram. utility piping systems. It’s a schematic representation of the all process line.

2. 3. 4.PIPE WAYS DESIGN Inputs required:1. 5. 6. 7. Job Specification PFD P&ID Utility Flow Diagrams Plot plan Interface details Anchor points .

3. valving and spade requirements. Manifold. i. Secondary access ways Main access roads Railway siding facility Standard to be used for minimum spacing of lines in pipe racks Operating and safety requirements affecting pipe rack and structure design 2. nitrogen etc. P&ID      . air. All instrumentation. Valves. Job Specification        Battery limit.PIPE WAYS DESIGN Inputs required cont…. 1. PFD  Process flow diagrams show main process scheme and interconnecting process equipment. Equipment and lines requiring services. Engineering flow diagrams are developed from process flow diagrams and show: Pipe sizes.e. and line number. water steam. Pipe classes. Isolation valves and relief valves in pipe rack.

Interface details 7. Anchor points . Utility Flow Diagrams       Steam Condensate Water Air Gas Nitrogen 5. Plot plan 6.PIPE WAYS DESIGN Inputs required cont… 4.

Add up the number of lines up to 18” diameter in the most dense section of the pipe rack. Interdistances b/w lines. The width of a pipe rack may be calculated using the following method : First estimate number of lines as described.PIPE WAYS DESIGN Pipe rack Width:    The width of pipe rack is influenced by : The number of lines Space for future lines. The total width in meters (W) will be : .

PIPE WAYS DESIGN Typical example .

Construction feasibility. Project specifications. Maintenance equipment access clearance. . Safety concepts. Main road access clearance.PIPE WAYS DESIGN Pipe rack Elevation:         Headroom clearance at battery limit. Secondary road access clearance. Process requirements.


. it is essential that elevations of lateral pipe racks shall be between elevations of main pipe rack.PIPE WAYS DESIGN Elevation at Pipe rack Intersection: Where two-tier pipe racks meet.

PIPE WAYS DESIGN Change in direction in same elevation (Optional) Change in direction in different elevation (Recomended) Note: BOP shall be maintained .


. In special case .6M to 6M. Hot lines which span shorter distances than cold lines of the same size and wall thickness Insulated lines. cold . small bore. Size of the majority lines.this may be increased to a maximum of 8M.PIPE WAYS DESIGN Column spacing in Pipe Rack: Following points to be considered:     Deflection of pipe at mid-span.insulated lines due to weight of insulation must be supported at relatively short intervals However normal span of pipe rack sections varies between 4.


4. . 3.    Process Lines Products lines which run from vessels. 2. exchangers or pump to battery / unit limits Crude or other charge lines entering the unit which run along pipe rack before connecting to process equipment.PIPE WAYS DESIGN Grouping of lines: 1. exchangers. holding drums or booster pumps. Relief Headers Utility Headers Small & large bore lines. furnaces. Lines interconnecting nozzles on process equipment more than 6M apart (closer spaced equipment may be directly interconnecting inside piping areas).




.       One Tier Pipe racks Heavy lines regardless of service are placed over or near the pipe rack columns. (left) turning lines should be on the right (left) hand side of the pipe rack. The position of product lines is influenced by their routing after leaving the unit. central pipe rack portion is reserved for utility lines Process lines which interconnect equipment on both sides of the pipe rack should be placed close to utility lines. Place process and relief lines next to these.PIPE WAYS DESIGN Piping layout on Pipe racks: 1. lines serving right hand areas on the right. and can be on either side of pipe rack. Lines serving left hand areas of plant on left. right. depending upon location of equipment they serve.


This is not a rigid rule and where piping economy dictates certain process lines may be routed on the top level. .PIPE WAYS DESIGN Piping layout on Pipe racks: 2. Two Tier Pipe racks Utility lines are placed on the top level and process lines on the bottom level.


e. Pipe track Elevation : Pipe track elevation is set by maintenance access to piping items located underneath the pipe track. maximum span = 6 meters 3.e. drains and steam traps. Lines interconnecting equipment located on either side of pipe track are placed near the center of pipe track. i. Line Location     Line location with reference to bore and weight is unnecessary. Spacing of Pipe track Sleepers: Depending on line size and substance carried in pipes. Pipe track Width Pipe track width may be estimated using the method detailed previously for pipe rack 2. . On an average minimum span = 3 meters.PIPE WAYS DESIGN Design of the pipe tracks: 1. all lines interconnecting equipment located on right-hand side of pipe track are placed to the right of pipe track. 4.can be even 500mm. (i. Minimum of 300mm. Similarly. as all pipes are supported on sleepers which rest directly on the ground All lines interconnecting process equipment and/or storage tanks located on left-hand side of pipe track are placed to the left-hand side. gas or liquid).

7. 8. 9. Line Spacing Road Crossings Access Ways Valves Expansion Loops .PIPE WAYS DESIGN Design of the pipe tracks cont… 5. 6.

Dead ends must be considered max of 7M. Clearances.2M. Thermal radiation from the line/equipments should not affect the personnel involved in operations. Equipments (like furnace.SAFETY CONCEPTS Safety concepts:  Heat radiation factors. flare stack etc) shall be located down stream of the prevailing wind direction. Escape ways. Intermediate platform on the vertical ladder must be at 6M interval. All main escape routes must be directed towards the road. Max travel distance to a ladder/stair on a working platform must be 25M.   . Head room must be considered a min of 2. primary & sec escape route to be considered.

To prevent human errors and/or its consequences (reliability). Plant fire fighting facilities to be designed in such way that all the fire prone equipments & also the plant area fire can be covered at any point of time. Care should be taken care for the movement of emergency fire tender inside the plant. To protect the users’ safety & health (integrity) Other Benifits: 1. 2. .  Ergonomics & human factors. Fire fighting.To enhance productivity by human performance improvements (efficiency).SAFETY CONCEPTS Safety concepts cont….To enforce ease & comfort of operations (usability).   Environment & Pollution factors.

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