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Analgesics

Drug that relieves pain

Narcotics
Definition: A substance that depresses the activity of the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in analgesia & sleepiness, and eventually lethargy, apathy, and loss of consciousness. (and even death) Powerful painkillers Causes physical dependency upon regular use, which is difficult to reverse

Did you know?


Opium is cultivated from poppies. Morphine is named after the Greek God of dreams Morpheus. Morphine has more than 200 derivatives. Morphine is known on the street and elsewhere as M, sister morphine, Vitamin M, morpho, etc.

Brief history of narcotics


Opium use has been recorded in China over 2000 years ago. 1805-pure morphine was isolated from opium and crystalised as a white powder In the following years, codeine (the methyl ether of morphine) was isolated. The first synthetic derivative, Heroin (diamorphine, the diethanoyl ester of morphine) was made and marketed by the Bayer company in 1898

Ways Narcotics relieve pain

The main pharmacological action of analgesics is on the cerebrum and medulla of the central nervous system. Another effect is on the smooth muscle and glandular secretions of the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract. The precise mechanism of action is unknown although the narcotics appear to interact with specific receptor sites to interfere with pain impulses.

Derivatives of Morphine
Codeine (3-methylmorphine) a natural isomer of methylated morphine Heroin (diacetylmorphine or morphine diacetate (INN)) converted into morphine in the body

codeine

Sociological and Physiological Effects


Short Term: Drowsiness Slowed breathing Constipation Unconsciousness Nausea Coma

Sociological and Physiological Effects


On Immune System: Cells that are part of the immune system (namely dendritic cells) posses opiate receptors Results in decreased levels of cytokines and neutrophils around wounds in a dose-dependant manner reduce resistance to infection and impairs healing

Sociological and Physiological Effects


On human performance (sensory, motor and attention abilities): Shows negative impact on anterograde and retrograde memory (minimal) Effects are more pronounced in opioidnave subjects Shows impaired immediate and short-term visual memory

Sociological and Physiological Effects


Dizziness or confusion may also occur Under high dosage: hallucinations or delusions

Sociological and Physiological Effects


As morphine and its other derivatives causes users to experience europhia and alleviate distress and suffering encourages dependency on drug Highly addictive and tolerance develop quickly Withdrawals lead to:
Nausea, chills, sweating, restlessness, diarrhea, vomiting, insomnia, muscle and bone pain

Sociological and Physiological Effects


Morphine crosses the placenta barrier babies born to morphine using mothers can experience withdrawal Leads to illicit use of morphine Also encourages sharing of needles raising risks of spreading HIV

Controversy
Use of morphine has been supported as an effective pain reliever VS risk of addiction and increasing tolerance against drug Conflicts over the use of morphine for to end lives for the terminally ill

Sources
http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/science/morp hine-effects-uses.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morphine http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/prescription/opi oids-and-morphine-derivatives-effects.html http://www.carenotkilling.org.uk/articles/morphine-killspain-not-patients