Chapter 4 in Fundamentals
Professor Richard Holdich
R.G.Holdich@Lboro.ac.uk
Course details:
Particle Technology,
module code: CGB019 and CGB919,
2
nd
year of study.
Watch this lecture at
http://www.vimeo.com/10201620
Visit
http://www.midlandit.co.uk/particletechnology.htm
for further resources.
Filtration
Types
Cake filtration mechanism
Modification of Darcy's law
Constant pressure filtration
Constant rate filtration
Variable rate & pressure filtration
Industrial equipment
Types of filtration
Normally batch (in duplicate)
but some continuous ones:
Deep bed 
clarification
Image supplied by DynaSand and Hydro International (Wastewater) Ltd.
Types  membrane
Clarification on filtering membranes
Types  Clarification
Cartridge and candle filtration
Cake filtration mechanism
Multifilament filter cloth p. 40
Cake filtration mechanism
Monofilament filter cloth
Cake filtration mechanism
Monofilament open filter cloth/mesh
Cake filtration mechanism
p.31
Why cant we simply measure R
m
for each medium?
Ideal
Filtrate
Bridging
over pores
Filter medium
Filter cake
sharp interface medium/
cake  uniform spheres
in cake easy to model
Cake filtration mechanism
reality p 41
Why cant we simply measure R
m
for each medium?
Real
Filter cake
Filter medium
i.e. R
m
= f(material to be filtered)
Modification of Darcy's law
Porosity or voidage
and Concentration
dV
dt
1
A
Porous media
void + solid = unity
fraction fraction
Volume fractions:
U =
o
U
o
U
Superficial velocity:
+ C = 1
Modification of Darcy's law
Darcys law:
A t
V
k L
P 1
d
d
=
A
KozenyCarman equation:
A t
V S
L
P
v
1
d
d ) 1 ( 5
3
2
2


.

\

=
A
c
c
Pressure/L
Flow rate
x S
v
/ 6 =
use:
Modification of Darcy's law
Darcys law/Kozeny:
= =
A
A t
V
k L
P 1
d
d
Pressure/L
Flow rate
What do the graphs tell us about these equations?
How will this vary for filtration?
Think about a given material and filter in these equations
what is constant, what varies, look at the graph
What are the independent and dependent variables?
A
Q S
v


.

\

3
2
2
) 1 ( 5
c
c
Time
Volume
liquid
Modification of Darcy's law
p.29
Darcys law:
A t
V
k L
P 1
d
d
=
A
Q is constant
 permeation
Time
Filtrate
volume
Q decreases
 filtration
At constant pressure drop:
Modification of Darcy's law
p. 32
Build up of incompressible filter cake:
Filter medium
Filter cake
formation
Modification of Darcy's law
20 kPa
P = dV 1
L k dt A
1.5 V
V = R I
0.75 V
10 kPa
0 kPa 0 V
Modification of Darcy's law
Pressure drops are additive:
AP
cake
AP
medium
A t
V
k
L 1
d
d
=
A t
V
k
L
m
m
1
d
d
=
Modification of Darcy's law
Pressure drops are additive:
AP
A t
V
k
L 1
d
d
=
A t
V
R
m
1
d
d
+
0
0
Gradient:
C
a
k
e
v
o
l
u
m
e
Filtrate volume
= LA
V
Ratio:
cake volume:filtrate = constant = 
P A
R
V
kC
C
PA V
t
m
s
s
A
+


.

\

A
=

2
d
d
P A
R
V
PA
c
V
t
m
A
+
A
=
o
2
d
d
Modification of Darcy's law
0
0
Gradient:
C
a
k
e
v
o
l
u
m
e
Filtrate volume
= LA
V
Ratio:
cake volume:filtrate = constant = 

.

\

1
s
C 
What does
Represent in English,
see the graph


.

\

s
kC
1
What does
Represent in English
Modification of Darcy's law
p.36
where c is the dry cake mass per unit volume of filtrate:
and o is the specific resistance to filtration (m/kg).

.

\

=
sm
s
c
1
s is feed slurry mass fraction and m is the moisture ratio of the
cake (mass cake wet/mass cake dry  or sample). In some
instances one can assume m=1; i.e. neglect liquid in cake.
Modification of Darcy's law
p.36
A Q R R P
m c
/ ) ( + = A
w
R
c
alpha = R
c
/w
Considering R
c
& alpha some more:
w is dry mass/unit area solids:
A
cV
w=
so:
A Q R
A
cV
P
m
/ ) ( + = A
o
\

=
sm
s
c
1
P A
R
V
PA
c
V
t
m
A
+
A
=
o
2
d
d
General filtration equation:
Constant pressure filtration
Constant AP filtration  integrate general equation:
to give:
P A
R
V
PA
c
V
t
m
A
+
A
=
o
2
d
d
P A
R
V
PA
c
V
t
m
A
+
A
=
o
2
2
b aV
V
t
+ =
i.e:
Time over filtrate
volume
Filtrate volume
b
a
Constant pressure filtration
summary:
Need to know:
P A
R
V
PA
c
V
t
m
A
+
A
=
o
2
2
viscosity, pressure,
and filter area
& slurry mass
fraction, liquid
density (and cake
moisture  if poss.)
Time over filtrate
volume
Filtrate volume
b
a
Need to calculate:
c then o
and R
m
Constant pressure filtration
General filtration equation:
Constant pressure:
P A
R
V
PA
c
V
t
m
A
+
A
=
o
2
2
P A
R
V
PA
c
V
t
m
A
+
A
=
o
2
d
d
y = m x + c
Constant pressure filtration
Filtration Testing in the Laboratory:
effect of pressure,
different cloths or media,
slurry agitation,
filter aids and flocculants
effect of slurry preconcentration
High permeability: vacuum leaf Low permeability: pressure bomb
Tests:
Constant pressure filtration
Filtration Testing in the Laboratory:
specific resistance  possibly as f(pressure),
medium resistance
cake concentration  possibly as f(pressure)
or moisture ratio
High permeability: vacuum leaf Low permeability: pressure bomb
To obtain values of:
Constant pressure filtration
Filtration Testing in the Laboratory:
Liquid viscosity
filtration pressure
filter area
High permeability: vacuum leaf Low permeability: pressure bomb
Also required for scaleup or simulation:
Slurry mass fraction
liquid density
solid density  if cake
height is required
Constant pressure filtration
p. 41 vacuum filter leaf
To vacuum
pump
Calibrated
filtrate
receiver
Drain
Leaf or
Mechanical
agitation
Vent
Valve  fully open in test
Slurry tank
Filtering side
Buchner
Stirrer
funnel
Experimental characterisation
Constant pressure filtration
Constant rate filtration p. 36
Constant rate:
General filtration equation:
P A
R
V
PA
c
V
t
m
A
+
A
=
o
2
d
d
t
V
A
R
V
t
V
A
c
P
m
o
+

.

\

= A
2
V
t
t
V
=
d
d
Filtration
pressure
Filtrate volume
b
a
Variable rate & pressure
filtration
General filtration equation:
Variable pressure and rate equation:
P A
R
V
PA
c
V
t
m
A
+
A
=
o
2
d
d
A
R
V
A
c
Q
P
m
o
+

.

\

=
A
2
plot
numerical integration of:
V
Q
&
1
}
=
Q
V
t
d
Industrial equipment p. 35
Rotary vacuum filter (continuous)
Stages
cake formation in slurry
tank (F)
drying and/or washing
(D and W)
discharge  then back to
formation (D & Di)
F
D
W
D & Di
Industrial equipment
Constant pressure:
P A
R
V
PA
c
V
t
m
A
+
A
=
o
2
2
Rearrange for a quadratic:
0
2
2
2
=
A
+

.

\

A
t V
P A
R
V
PA
c
m
o
Industrial equipment p. 36
Simulation of Rotary Vacuum Filter:
0
2
2
2
=
A
+

.

\

A
t V
P A
R
V
PA
c
m
o
i.e. aV
2
+ bV  t = 0
a
at b b
V
2
4
2
+ +
=
where form time t = F/n (submergence/speed)
Industrial equipment
per cycle of drum:
Mass dry cake deposited = cV (kg)
Mass wet cake deposited = mcV (kg)
mass slurry filtered = mcV + V (kg)
a
at b b
V
2
4
2
+ +
=
Calculate volume, hence:
All above is per cycle, hence 3600/t for output per hour.
Industrial equipment
Vacuum belt filter (continuous)
Image appears
courtesy of
Polyfilters UK
Limited
www.polyfilters.com
Industrial equipment
Vacuum belt
filter
(continuous)
Image supplied courteousy of BHSSonthofen GmbH, Germany www.bhssonthofen.de
Industrial equipment
Vacuum disc filter (continuous)
Image courtesy of FLSmidth, Inc.
Industrial equipment
Tube pressure filter (batch)
Image courtesy of Mesto Minerals (Sala) AB
Filtration
Types
Cake filtration mechanism
Modification of Darcy's law
Constant pressure filtration
Constant rate filtration
Variable rate & pressure filtration
Industrial equipment
This resource was created by Loughborough University and released as an open educational resource through the Open Engineering
Resources project of the HE Academy Engineering Subject Centre. The Open Engineering Resources project was funded by HEFCE
and part of the JISC/HE Academy UKOER programme.
Slide 3. Image of a DynaSand is provided courtesy of Hydro International (wastewater) Limited. See http://www.hydrointernational.biz/irl/wastewater/dynasand.php for
more details.
Slide 37. The image of a vacuum belt filter (continuous is provided with the permission of Polyfilters (UK) Limited. See http://www.polyfilters.com/process.html for more
details.
Slide 38. Image provided courtesy of BHSSonthofen GmbH. See www.bhssonthofen.de for more details.
Slide 39. Image provided courtesy of FLSmidth Inc. See
http://www.flsmidthminerals.com/Products/Filtration/Vacuum+Filtration/Vacuum+Disc+Filters/Agidisc+Vacuum+Filters/Agidisc+Vacuum+Filters.htm for more details.
Slide 40. Image of a tube press discharge, provided courtesy of Mesto Minerals (Sala) AB. See
http://www.metso.com/miningandconstruction/MaTobox7.nsf/DocsByID/C44A6B216E52C95142256AF6002D6148/$File/Tube_Press_ES.pdf for more details.
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