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ASSIGNMENT BASIC

PATHOLOGY
DIP. MEDICAL IMAGING
GROUP’S MEMBERS

LEADER
• ABD. FIEQAR B. ABD KARIM

MEMBERS
• NOR SUHANA BT. NASRUDDIN 890622105198
• AFIFA BT SAMAT 890903085664
• FARAH AQILAH BT. KHAIRUDDIN 890921145712
• NUR AZUHA BT MOHD. SINAR
• KARMILA BT.
• SUKRIAH BT. MOHD TAHA 880927495044
BACTERIA

Bacteria are single cell organisms that are found living


throughout our world. Bacteria eat everything from sugar,
starch, sulfur and iron. There's even a species of bacteria—
Deinococcus radiodurans—that can withstand blasts of
radiation 1,000 times greater than a human being could
survive!
TYPES OF BACTERIA

Microbiologists classify bacteria according


to their shape: spherical, rod-shaped, and
spiral-shaped.

Coccus Bacillus Spirillum


• Bacteria may be further classified according
to whether they require oxygen (aerobic) or
no oxygen (anaerobic)

Bacillus anthracis Peptostreptococcus


Aerobic bacteria Anaerobic bacteria
THE WAY IT OCCUR
It happened with a few causes:
• Polluted Water
• Food posioning
• Air pollution
• Also body immune is very weak to
protect our body from any infection
by bacteria
TYPES OF DISEASE
INFECTED BY BACTERIA

• Staphylococcus
• Streptococcus
• Pseudomonas
• Clostridium difficile
• Escherichia coli
Staphylococcus
- Staphylococcus infections mainly affect the
skin. Two common types are staphylococcal
epidermis and Staphylococcus aureus. They
usually cause mild infections but these can be
more serious more in people in cancer.

Streptococcus
- Streptococci are common bacteria that can
cause tonsillitis and skin infection(cellulitis).
They usually treated with antibiotics like
penicilin.
Pseudomonas
- Pseudomonas infections are more rare but can
be a problem for people whohave weak immune
system or who are in hospital in same time.
The germs live in soil, water and on the skin.

Clostridium difficile
- Clostridium difficile infection is most common
in people who are already on antibiotics,
certain bacteria can live normally in the bowel
in just the right numbers to keep it healthy.
But being the antibiotics can upset the
balance and allow some bacteria to multiply
and become harmful.
Escherichia coli
- Escherichia coli ( E coli) infections also
affect the gut causing diarrhoea and fever.
Can bacteria be helpful?
Yes! Bacteria is used to make medicine!

Bacteria produce powerful antibiotics such as


penicillin (pen-ih-sill-en) and tetracycline (teh-truh-
sigh-klin). These are drugs we use to fight off nasty
bacteria that cause sore throats, ear infections,
diarrhea and other discomforts.
Other helpful bacteria.
This bacteria can help clean soil

Bacteria, like those pictured here, are used to help


clean soil and oil spills! Scientist used this type of
bacteria to help clean the oil spill caused by the Exxon
Valdez off the coast of Alaska. These bacteria feed
on the oil, turning it into carbon dioxide and other
harmless by-products.
Cont..Helpful bacteria
Its make a yogurt,

Lactobacillus acidiphilus

Milk is left to ferment (to spoil) causing the growth of


this bacteria. With the proper temperature, the
bacteria will grow and start converting milk sugar to
lactic acid. This is what gives yogurt the sour taste!
This bacteria helps digest dead
organism!

Bacillus thuringiensis, a common bacterium


found in soil.
• Bacteria are used in farming!

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are small bacteria nodules on


the roots of beans and other plants. The nodules take
nitrogen from the air and converts it to usable nitrogen
form that plants can use.
Warning!
- Not all bacteria are helpful! some are
dangerous to people! some can make you very
sick and others can kill people in matter of
time.
Others warning bacteria..
Streptococcus Bacteria

This scanning electron micrograph shows disease-causing


Streptococcus bacteria, commonly found in the human
mouth, throat, respiratory tract, bloodstream, and
wounds. Often airborne in hospitals, schools, and other
public places, Streptococcus bacteria are responsible
for infections such as strep throat, scarlet fever, and
some types of pneumonia.
Warning!! Clostridium botulinum
Botulism
• Botulism is caused by consuming the spores of the
botulinum bacteria, which then grow in the intestines
and release toxin. All forms of botulism can be fatal
and are considered medical emergencies. Symptoms of
botulism include double vision, blurred vision, drooping
eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry
mouth, and muscle weakness.
This harmful bacteria causes pneumonia,
Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Look for black cocci bacteria in this lung sample.


Do you notice that each one is surrounded by a
clear zone? This zone is a capsule that surrounds
and protects the bacteria. This protection is
what makes it such a deadly disease!
Others picture of bacteria