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Bangladesh Policy Context for Climate Change- Disaster Risk Reduction and Food Security

Presented By A.K.M. Mamunur Rashid

Policy Niche

There are several standalone policy/ strategy/ plan/ programme.
Food Policy-Food Security Road Map-CIP  DM Policy-DM Act-NPDM-SOD  BCCSAP  Supportive Sectoral Policies: Fishery PolicyAgriculture Policy-Water Policy  Long Term and Medium Term Plans (Perspective Plan, Five Year Plan)

8/30/2013

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while 0. landslide High susceptibility to Earthquake and Sea Level Rise Highly vulnerable country to climate change impacts. hill ecosystem. cyclone.3.Bangladesh: Resilience Context        Largest Delta in the world.31 % loss due to Aila in 2009 3 . floodplain ecosystem and Barind Eco-system Agriculture dominated economy High exposure to flood.7% of GDP loss due to flood and Cyclone Sidr in 2007. salinity. located in GBM basin with 1000 people living in per sq/km with a total 150 million people. drought. 30 Agro-ecological Zones Diverse ecological systems: coastal eco-system.

4) Very good progress in health and education sector Significant progress in food production. 18% from public sector 4 . Increasing inequality (gini co-efficiency is about . accessibility remain a challenge… food utilization remain undermined in policy directives…….Bangladesh: Resilience Context          Targeted average growth is 7% in Sixth FYP Average 6% GDP growth in last 5 years 31. 30 million people are some how unemployed Targeted average growth is 7% in Sixth FYP 82% GDP from private sector.5% people (45 million heads) below poverty line.

bio-diversity. forests and wildlife for the present and future citizens”  Rio   Regulatory Framework    ECA 1995 and revised 2010 ECR 1997 and revised 2010 Wetland Conservation Act 2000. 5 . and other related acts.Rationale/Obligation  Link with Sustainable Development Goal in 1992  Johannesburg 2009  Rio 20+ (2012) Constitutional Obligation  18/ka (A) of Bangladesh Constitution 2011 states that “The state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to preserve and safeguard the natural resources. wetlands.

climate change. disaster and thus overall sustainable development goals 7th Five Year Plan (2016 -2020)  Preparatory work will start in Mid June 2013  This 7th FYP needs to reflect the global and national lessons learned and obligations 6  Now  8/30/2013 .Relevance in Planning and Budget Process  Delta Plan 2100 at inception stage  Major focus on environment.

The Scale of Budget 8/30/2013 7 .

Communication Environment and Forest Fisheries and Livestock Energy and Mineral Resources Division. Energy and Mineral Resources Education Ministry Health and Family Welfare Ministry Other Ministries and Divisions (26) Total Number of Programmes 8/30/2013 2009/10 102 48 42 39 29 24 13 13 12 77 399 2010/11 96 59 51 47 39 27 15 26 11 84 455 2011/12 87 60 76 57 26 31 17 21 3 84 462 8 . Local Government Ministry Water Resources Agriculture Roads and Railway Division. Power.Development Budget – Summary of Programmes Identified 2009/10 to 2011/12 Ministry / Division Local Government Division.

4% Flood 2004 13.6% 2007 7.7% Cyclone Aila 2009 1.31% 84.7% 50. The damage amount taken from different damage and loss assessment reports. .Examples of hidden GDP losses experiencing in the process of growth and development in Bangladesh. DAMAGE TO NATIONAL ECONOMY DUE TO MAJOR DISASTERS Damage 1998 Total damage (Crore TK) % of GDP Infrastructure loss (% of total loss) Nonstructural/livelihood/agriculture loss (% of total loss) 11.6% 38. 26-27.419 5.557 2.53% 61.253 1.04% 74.45% 63.7% Source: SFYP Part 3: Statistical Annex and Technical Framework.3% 36. pp.885 .4% Sidr 2007 11.4% 25.6% 49.450 4.3% 23.

Human Rights has become integral part of poverty when mainstreaming is concerned.  Gender. environment. climate change and disaster Poverty remains the main development agenda in last 4 decades. Disability.  Environment has become a mainstreaming agenda since 1992  Disaster has become a policy agenda since 1991  Climate change has become a priority policy agenda since 2004  Poverty-Gender-Environment-Climate-Disaster nexus has 10 8/30/2013 become an agenda since 2010  . The food security is considered as key factor in poverty discourse.Mainstreaming: Emerging Agenda poverty.

Climate Change-Disaster Mainstreaming Spheres Political Will/Act/Policy Entry Points Election Manifesto of AL and BNP in 2008 election ECA 1995.Mainstreaming DRR-CCA-EM Environment. 2010 DM Act 2012 Wetland Conservation Act Environment Policy Coastal Zone Policy National Forest Policy National Water Policy Renewable Energy Policy Tourism Policy Industry Policy Agriculture Policy Fisheries Policy Food Policy SOD 2010 Maturity in Terms of Provisions High High High High High High High Medium High Medium Low Medium Medium Low High Maturity in Terms of Commitment to Action Low Medium Low Low Medium Low Medium Low Low Low Low Medium Low NIL Low 8/30/2013 11 .

Mainstreaming Environment Environment. Yet to emerge High High High High High Medium High High Low High High Low Medium N/A Medium Medium Medium Low Low Medium Low Medium Low Medium Medium Low Medium Guideline/ Framework Annual Development Plan MTBF Development Project Proforma Tools EIA SEA CRA 12 .Climate Change-Disaster Mainstreaming Spheres Entry Points Maturity in Terms of Provisions Maturity in Terms of Commitment to Action Plan/ Strategies Delta Plan 2100 Perspective Plan 2010-21 Sixth FYP 2010-2016 BCCSAP 2009 NPDM 2010 NAPA 2009 Country Investment Plan NSDS Valued.

Mainstreaming Environment Environment.Climate Change-Disaster Mainstreaming Spheres Institutions Entry Points Implementing Ministries Planning Commission IMED Finance Ministry Environment Ministry School Curriculum University Curriculum Maturity in Terms of Provisions Medium-Low High Medium Medium High High Medium Maturity in Terms of Commitment to Action Low Low NIL NIL Medium Medium Medium Media Private Sector Journalist Organization Media House Business Forum Corporate Houses Entrepreneur Mass Media Citizen-Citizen Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Medium High Low Low Low Low Low 13 Citizen .

Overseas employment of skilled labour to be increased from 35% to 50% . Creating good jobs for the large pool of under-employed and new labor force entrants by increasing the share of employment in the industrial sector from 17 percent to 25 percent.3% per year over the Plan period. Increasing the contribution of factor productivity in economic growth to 10 percent.Sixth Five Year Plan: Core Targets In The Context Of Vision 2021  Income and Poverty ― ― ― ― ― Attaining average real GDP growth rate of 7. Reduction in the head-count poverty ratio by about 10 percentage points.

Infant Mortality Rate to be reduced to 31 per 1000 live birth. measles (percent of children under 12 months) to be increased to 100 percent. Births attended by skilled health staff to be increased to 50 percent. Health and Population) ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― Achieving 100 percent net enrollment rate for primary education.Sixth Five Year Plan: Core Targets In The Context Of Vision 2021  Human Resource Development (Education. Increasing enrollment rate in 12th class to 60%.000 live births. Percentage of cohort reaching grade 5 to be increased to 100 from current 55 percent.2 Increasing Contraceptive Prevalence Rate to 72 percent. Reduction of Total Fertility Rate to 2. Immunization. Maternal Mortality Ratio to be reduced to 143 per 100. . Under 5 mortality rate to be reduced to 50 per 1000 live birth.

. Proportion of urban population with access to sanitary latrines to be increased to 100 percent.Sixth Five Year Plan: Core Targets In The Context Of Vision 2021  Water and Sanitation ― ― ― ― Safe drinking water to be made available for all urban population. Proportion of rural population with access to safe drinking water to be increased to 96. Proportion of rural population with access to sanitary latrines to be raised to 90 percent.5 percent.

long Padma Multipurpose Bridge at MawaJanjira. Construction of about 26 km. Production of natural gas to reach about 4500 mmcfd by December 2015 Optimizing domestic production of primary energy resources including renewable energies. Construction of 6.Sixth Five Year Plan: Core Targets In The Context Of Vision 2021  Energy and Infrastructure ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― Generation of electricity to be increased to 15.15km. . To increase energy efficiency by 10% Improve railways and waterways as energy efficient multi-modal transport system to reduce carbon emission. Electricity coverage to be increased to 68 percent. Expanding access of the poor to primary and secondary energy sources through affordable pricing and targeted distribution.457 MW by FY15 such that the target of 20. long Dhaka Elevated Expressway.000 MW electricity generated by FY21 is attained.

The ratio of literate female to male for age group 20-24 to be raised to 100 percent from the current 85 percent.Sixth Five Year Plan: Core Targets In The Context Of Vision 2021  Gender Equality and Empowerment ― ― Female to male ratio in tertiary education to be raised from current 32 percent to 60 percent. .

Improve air quality in Dhaka and other large cities and enacted Clean Air Act Treat all urban waste water by FY15 to clean river waters Promote Zero discharge of industrial effluents. Canals and natural water flows of Dhaka and other major cities restored. Urban wetlands are restored and protected in line with Wetland Conservation Act At least 10% of the wetland in peak dry season is protected as aquatic sanctuary Jolmahal leasing system phased out in favour of pro-poor community based management Risk Atlas for at least 7 cities/towns developed by 2015.Sixth Five Year Plan: Core Targets In The Context Of Vision 2021  Environmental Sustainability ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― Increase productive forest coverage by 2 percentage points. 500 meter wide permanent green belt established and protected along the coast Eco-tourism promoted at least in 15 protected areas and ECAs Comprehensive Marine Resources Management Plan developed Land zoning for sustainable land/water use completed. . budgetary allocations and implementation process. Environmental. Climate Change and disaster risk reduction considerations are integrated into project design.

Establish computer laboratory at the primary government school with 5 computers per school. Introduce electronic GD and FIR at all Police Stations in Dhaka. Introduce of E-governance at all executive levels of government and at all district level. Expand Broad Band to 30 percent. Raise telephone density to 70 percent.Sixth Five Year Plan: Core Targets In The Context Of Vision 2021  Information and Communications Technology (ICT) ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― ― Increase public spending on Research and Development to 1 percent of GDP by FY15 and 1. Introduce Wireless Broad Band (Wi Max) across the country. Establish compulsory ICT education at secondary level by FY13 and extend it to the primary level by FY21.4 percent by FY 21. Introduce digitalization of land records . Establish tele-centre /community e-centre with internet facilities at all union level.

The „allocation of business‟ and narrow definition of the terms made a cloudy atmosphere for integration.Agenda Cloud      Climate Change has over shadowed the agenda of Environment in Bangladesh. “Resilience” is the most discussed 21 8/30/2013 conceptual niche for such integration. Whole agenda of DRR-CCA-EM-PR-FS is narrowly addressed under several sectoral policies. programmes and plans. and there is lack of synergies amongst these plans and programmes. DRR is seen as one of the immediate vehicle for „building resilience‟. . Green Development is an emerging concept in the country under the climate agenda (commonly conceptualized as mitigation) Policy agenda is not enough matured but external demand and funding opportunity drives some interests There is progressive discussions at all levels to integrate DRR-CCAEM-PR-FS under one niche.

cyclone shelters and urban drainage) is put in place to deal with the likely impacts of climate change. and best practices of climate change management. coastal and river embankments) are well-maintained and fit-for-purpose and that urgently needed infrastructure (e. This is to predict the likely scale and timing of climate change impacts on different sectors of the economy and socioeconomic groups. civil society and the private sector to meet the challenge of climate change and mainstream them as part of development actions.g. This is to enhance the capacity of government ministries and agencies. and to ensure that Bangladesh is networked into the latest global thinking on science. employment and access to basic services. to underpin future investment strategies. Social Protection and Health: Theme 2 Comprehensive Disaster Management: Theme 3 Infrastructure: The first relates to ensuring food and livelihood security. It focuses on the needs of this group for food security. . This is to evolve low carbon development options and implement these as the country‟s economy grows over the coming decades and the demand for energy increases. This is to further strengthen the country‟s already proven disaster management systems to deal with increasingly frequent and severe natural calamities. including women and children.g.BCCSAP Themes Theme 1: Food Security. especially for the poorest and most vulnerable in society. including health. Theme 4 Research and Knowledge Management: Theme 5: Mitigation and Low Carbon Development: Theme 6: Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening: This Action Plan is to ensure that existing assets (e. safe housing.

Increasing prominence of development objectives as the primary purpose for the expenditure Increasing difficulty in attributing climate change impact Mitigation .forests Adaptation – narrowly defined Adaptation – broadly defined 8/30/2013 23 .energy Mitigation .

Simplified Overview of Climate Funds Flow (Bangladesh) GoB Non Development Budget Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund Domestic Resources (c75%) Alternative Flows GoB Funded Development Budget OVERALL CLIMATE BUDGET Bilateral and Multilateral ADP Funds Foreign Resources (c25%) Bangladesh Climate Change Resilience Fund Alternative Flows Strategic Programme For Climate Resilience GoB Annual Development Plan 8/30/2013 Non GoB Delivery Mechanisms 24 .

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