You are on page 1of 41

Research Design

1
1
 

August 30, 2013

Topic & Structure of the lesson

 
2
2
 

Topic Outline

  • Nature of, Overview and Classification of Design

  • Developing an appropriate research design

  • Experimental research design:

  • Basic Designs

  • Types & validity of experimental design external & internal

 

August 30, 2013

Learning Outcomes

3
3
 

On completion of this chapter you should be

able to understand:

Understand the major descriptors of research design

Understand the major types of research designs

Understand the relationships that exist between variables in causal designs and the steps for evaluating those relationships

August 30, 2013

RESEARCH DESIGNS:OVERVIEW

4
4
 
  • It is a statement of only the essential elements of a study, those

that provide the basic guidelines for details of the project.

  • A research design is like a description of a `model'

August 30, 2013

RESEARCH DESIGN: DEFINITION

5
5
 
  • Research design constitute the blueprint for the collection,

measurement and analysis of data.

The essentials of research design:

  • An activity- and time based plan.

  • A plan always based on the research question.

  • A guide for selecting sources and types of information.

  • A framework for specifying the relationship among the study’s

variables.

  • A procedural outline for every research activity.

August 30, 2013

Why Research Design is needed?

6
6
 
  • Clarity

  • Relevance

  • Ease in Analysis and Interpretation

  • Economy

August 30, 2013

Classification of Research Design

7
7
Exploratory Research Design Cross – Design Research Conclusive Research Design Causal Design Descriptive Research Longitudinal Design
Exploratory
Research
Design
Cross –
Design
Research
Conclusive
Research
Design
Causal
Design
Descriptive
Research
Longitudinal
Design
Cross –
Sectional
Research Design
Multiple
Sectional
Design
Single
Cross –
Sectional

August 30, 2013

Classification of Research Designs:

 
8
8
 
  • RDs may be broadly classified as exploratory or conclusive

  • Exploratory research (ER)

are the simplest, most flexible and most

loosely structured designs. As the name suggests, the basic objective of the study is to explore and obtain clarity on the problem situation.

  • Sample selected is small & non-representative. The primary data are qualitative. Findings are tentative.

  • Conclusive research is more formal and structured than ER. It is based on large, representative samples, and the data are subjected to

quantitative analysis. The objective of these studies is to provide a comprehensive and detailed explanation of the phenomena under study.

  • Findings are conclusive. Used in managerial decisions. These may be either descriptive or causal.

 

August 30, 2013

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EXPLORATORY AND CONCLUSIVE RESEARCH

9
9
 
 

Exploratory

Conclusive

Objective:

To provide insights and understanding.

To test specific hypotheses and examine relationships

Characteristic

Information needed is defined

Information needed is clearly

s:

only loosely Research process is flexible and

defined. Research process is formal

unstructured

and structured

Sample is small and non-

Sample is large and

representative.

Findings/Resu

representative Analysis of primary data is

Data analysis is quantitative.

lts:

qualitative. Tentative

Conclusive

Outcome:

Generally followed by further

Findings used as input into

exploratory or conclusive research

decision making

 

August 30, 2013

Exploratory Research Design

10
10
 
  • Secondary resource analysis: Secondary sources of data give information in terms of details of previously collected findings in facts and figures which has been authenticated and published.

  • Case method: it is intricately designed and reveals a comprehensive and complete presentation of facts, as they occur, in a single entity. This could be an individual, an organisation or an entire country.

August 30, 2013

Exploratory Research Design

11
11
 
  • Expert opinion survey: valuable insights obtained from experts which might be based on their experience in the field or based on academic work

done on the concept.

  • Focus group discussions: a carefully selected representative sub set of the larger respondent gather to discuss together, in a short time frame, the subject/topic to be investigated.

August 30, 2013

Descriptive Studies Descriptions of population characteristics Estimates of frequency of characteristics Discovery of associations among variables
Descriptive Studies
Descriptions of
population characteristics
Estimates of frequency of
characteristics
Discovery of associations
among variables
 

Descriptive Research Design

13
13
 

Cross-sectional research designs: two criteria

1.

carried out at a single moment in time,

therefore the applicability is temporal specific

2.

Conducted on a sub-section of the respondent

population

Variations

  • Single/multiple cross- sectional designs

  • Cohort analysis

 

August 30, 2013

 

Descriptive Research Design

14
14
 

Longitudinal studies: three criteria

  • 1. The study involves selection of a representative

 

group as a panel.

  • 2. There are repeated measurement of the researched variable on this panel over fixed intervals of time.

  • 3. Once selected the panel composition

needs to

 

stay constant over the study period.

 

August 30, 2013

Causal Studies Symmetrical Reciprocal Asymmetrical
Causal Studies
Symmetrical
Reciprocal
Asymmetrical

Experimental Design

16
16

An experiment is generally used to infer a causality. In an experiment, a researcher actively manipulates one or more causal variables and measures their effects on the dependent variable of interest.

  • Independent variables: Independent variables are also known as explanatory variables or treatments. The levels of these variables are manipulated (changed) by researchers to measure their effect on the dependent variable.

  • Test units: Test units are those entities on which treatments are applied.

  • Dependent variables: These variables measures the effect of treatments (independent variable) on the test units.

  • Experiment: An experiment is executed when the researcher manipulates one or more independent variables and measures their effect on the dependent variables while controlling

the effect of the extraneous variables.

  • Extraneous variables: These are the variables other than the independent variables which influence the response of test units to treatments.

Examples: Store size, government policies, temperature, food intake, geographical location, etc.

August 30, 2013

Validity

 
17
17
 
  • Validity: The degree of confidence researchers and managers can have in the results of the study.

 
  • Two Goals

  • 1. draw valid conclusions about the impact of independent variable on the study group,

  • Secondly, should be able to generalize the findings to a larger population of interest.

  • The first objective is related with what is known as internal validity. The second is related with external validity.

  • Internal validity: Internal validity tries to examine whether the observed effect on a dependent variable is actually caused by the treatments (independent variables) in

question.

  • Some major classes

of

variables

that

may

affect

internal

validity/generate

experimental error: i) History (ii) Maturation

(iii)

Testing

Effects

(iv)

Instrumentation (v) Selection Bias (vi) Test Unit Mortality

 
 

August 30, 2013

Validity

Validity External validity: External validity refers to the generalization of the results of an experiment. The

External validity: External validity refers to the generalization of the results of an experiment. The concern is whether the result of an experiment can be generalized beyond the experimental

In most of the experiments the data are collected through sampling process and not from population.

Factors Affecting External Validity:

The environment at the time of test may be different from the environment of the real world where these results are to be generalized.

Population used for experimentation of the test may not be similar to the population where the results of the experiments are to be applied.

Results obtained in a 56 week test may not hold in an application of 12 months. Treatment at the time of the test may be different from the treatment of the real world.

It is desirable to have an experimental validity.

design that has both external and internal

 
 

Reliability

19
19
 

Reliability(Consistency of results): The degree to which measures are free from errors and therefore yield consistent results. Ex. Measuring fabric with a tape measure.

Ordinal measures are reliable if it consistently rank order items in

the same manner. Interval measures-if it results the same distance

between the two ranks

Dimensions that underlie the reliability:

a) Repeatability (test-retest method) Ex. Satisfaction level of employees at two different intervals b) Internal Consistency (Splitting half method & equivalent- form methods) :

Ex. Two groups of respondents one questionnaire. One group of respondents using alternative instruments as equivalent as possible.

 

August 30, 2013

Methods to Control Extraneous Variables

20
20
 
  • Randomization

  • Matching

  • Use of experimental designs

  • Statistical control

August 30, 2013

The Research Environment Field conditions Lab conditions Simulations
The Research Environment
Field conditions
Lab conditions
Simulations

Types of Experimental Designs

 
22
22
 
 

Types: Basic Designs & Statistical Designs

Basic Designs: Considers the impact of only one independent variable at a time

  • 1. After-Only Design;

  • 2. Before-After Design

  • 3. Before-After With Control Design

  • 4. Simulated Before-After Design

  • 5. After-Only with Control

  • 6. Solmon Four-Group Design

 

August 30, 2013

Types of Experimental Design

 
23
23
 
  • Statistical Design: Allows the evaluation of the effect of more than one independent variable

1.

Randomized Block Design

  • 2. Latin Square design

 
  • 3. Factorial Design

  • Various Symbols in Experimental designs:

 

MB = pre-measurement of the dependent variable i.e. before the introduction/manipulation of the independent variable.

MA = post-measurement of the dependent variable i.e. during the

introduction/manipulation of the independent variable.

X = treatment; the actual introduction or manipulation of the independent variable

R = designation/notation that the group is selected randomly

 

August 30, 2013

Basics Experimental Designs

 
 
24
24
 

After-Only design: involves manipulating the

independent variable and following this with a post-

measurement, or symbolically:

‘X

MA’

Ex. Ford Motors company spent $500,000 on such exp. In Dallas & in San Deiego. Sent engraved invitations to women to attend dealer

 

showroom ‘parties’ and served wine & cheese. Latest Clothing Fashions displayed by models & Ford automobiles were shown in ‘no pressure’

situation.

Subsequent purchase by those who attended the party was one measure to measure the success of the experiment.

Advantages/Disadvantages: Typical most new-products test markets example. Results difficult to interpret & subject to numerous errors. Requires substantial market knowledge & subjective judgment. Should be used with care.

 

August 30, 2013

Basics Experimental Designs

 
 
25
25
 

Before After Design: It involves a pre-measurement in

addition:

‘MB

X

MA’

The result of interest: (MA MB) i.e. considerable advantage over After-Only.

Ex. To estimate the effect of price increase on market share.

Researcher must be alert to the possibility that extraneous variable caused the result than the independent variable. Hence unless the researcher is confident that extraneous variables are not operating or that he/she can control their effect, before after design should be avoided.

Above two tests Quasi-experimental Design

 

August 30, 2013

Before-After with Control Design

 
 
26
26
 

Involves the addition of a control Group to the Before-After

Design:

R

MB1

X

MA1

 

R

MB2

MA2

Can control all potential errors except mortality & interaction.

Measure of interest: (MB1 MA1) (MB2 MA2)

Ex. A Firm wishes to test the impact of a P-O-P display. Ten retail stores selected for inclusion in the treatment group, another ten for the control group. Sales measured in each group of stores, before and after

 

the new P-O-P display. The change in sales of the two group is

compared. Controls any initial inequalities between the sales group.

In cases where the interaction is unlikely and control for history and selection errors is important, the before-after with control group design is the best design in terms of cost and error control.

 

August 30, 2013

Simulated Before After Design

 
 
27
27

Controls pre-measurement & interaction errors in experiments dealing with attitude and knowledge of human

subjects. Uses separate groups for the pre & post

 

measurement: R MB R

X

MA

Measure of interest= (MA MB)

Different individuals receives the pre- & post measurements, there can be no pre-measurement or interaction effect.

Ex. Advertising Research. Large sample-Questionnaire- attitude towards the product (pre-measurement) Advertisement (Change in the independent variable) second sample of respondents, same questionnaire (post- measurement). Thus difference in the two scores can

contribute to the effect of advertising campaign.

 

August 30, 2013

   

After-Only with Control design

 
 
28
28
 

If it is likely that the groups are initial equal on the variable of interest then there is no reason to go to the expense of pre-measurement. Instead an after-

only with control design can be used.

 

R

X1

MA1

R

MA2

Measure of interest: (MA2 MA1)

 

August 30, 2013

Solomon Four-Group Design

 
 
29
29
 
  • Consists of Four Groups, two treatment + two control and six measurements: two pre- measurements + Four post-measurements:

Experiment Group1:

R

MB1

X

MA1

Control Group1: R

MB2

MA2

Experiment Group2:

R

X

MA3

Control Group2:

R

MA4

It controls all sources of experimental errors except measurement timing & reactive error which is not subject to control by designs. No single method of analysis makes use of all six measurement methods simultaneously

  • All four groups are pre-selected in such a way that they are equivalent i.e. they are

selected on a random basis. This means before measurement should be the same in all

four groups except for random variations.

 
  • The four-group six-study design may be taken as a model for marketing experiments, has little practical value.

  • The expense of selecting four groups randomly and making six studies among these groups make this design impractical for most marketing studies.

 

August 30, 2013

Participants’ Perceptions

Participants’ Perceptions No deviation perceived Deviations perceived as unrelated Deviations perceived as researcher-induced
 
No deviation perceived

No deviation perceived

Deviations perceived as unrelated

Deviations perceived as researcher-induced

 

Statistical Designs

31
31
 

Statistical designs allow for statistical control and analysis of external variables.

  • Completely randomized design

  • Randomized block design

  • Latin square design

  • Factorial design

August 30, 2013

Statistical designs

 
32
32
 

Completely randomized Design:

Treatments are applied to the experimental units

 

entirely by a chance process.

Statistical tool used ANOVA one way

 

August 30, 2013

Statistical Designs

33
33
 
  • Randomized Block Design(Two Way ANOVA):

  • In RBD the experimental units are blocked, that is, grouped or stratified, on the basis of extraneous or blocking variable.

  • Ex. Assume that a total sample of 800 males and 400 females is

available. Individuals are assigned to blocks based on their gender,

producing one block of 400 females and one block of 800 males. The individuals within each block are randomly assigned to treatment groups. The use of ANOVA then allows the researcher to determine the impact of the commercial on the overall group as well as its impact on

the males and females subgroups.

August 30, 2013

Factorial Design

 
34
34
 
 

Used to measure the effect of two or more independent variables at same time and to measure the interaction effect of the variables. Interaction occurs when the simultaneous effect of two or more

variables is different from the sum of their effects taken one at a time.

Ex. Ones favorite color might be gray & favorite desert might be ice-cream. However it does not follow that he/she would prefer gray ice-cream.

 

August 30, 2013

Factorial Design

Factorial Design Ex. Consider the problem of determining the proper concentration of sugar & flavor in
 

Ex. Consider the problem of determining the proper concentration of sugar & flavor in a soft drink.

  • One approach may be to make a batch of optimum mixture and have a sample consumer taste it and indicate and order of preference.

  • Another approach may be: makeup several batches with different level of sugar content and flavor constant. Consumer may then taste and

indicate a preference. Later on sugar could be held constant and flavor

varied.

  • Later approach may indicate that heavy sugar and heavy sugar were preferred. May not be valid always. The fact may be when the flavor is strong, the sugar may be less desirable.

  • So its important to test various levels of sugar content combined with various levels of flavor

 

Factorial Design

Factorial Design Flavor Sugar Content Intensity 1 2 3 4 1 A – 4.9 B- 6.0

Flavor

 

Sugar Content

 

Intensity

1

2

3

4

1

A 4.9

B- 6.0

C 5.0

D 3.6

2

E 6.1

F 7.3

G 5.1

H 3.8

3

I 8.1

J - 9.2

K 8.3

L 4.6

4

M 6.2

N 6.4

O 6.2

P 3.2

  • Suppose four degrees/levels each were selected as possible characteristics of the final product. Sixteen combinations can be

..

With say

made as follows & be given to sample of consumers some preference from 1-10… Hypothetically:

  • Second degree of sugar content & third degree of flavor are preferred over others. The combination of these two is the product formula as per FD.

Factorial Design Flavor Sugar Content Intensity 1 2 3 4 1 A – 4.9 B- 6.0

Latin Square design

37
37
 
  • With the Latin Square design one can control variation in two directions.

  • The design requires that extraneous or blocking variables be divided in to an equal no. of blocks or levels, such as drugstores, supermarkets

and discount stores. The independent variables be divided in to the

same no. of levels, such as high price, medium price & low price.

  • -Treatments are arranged in rows and columns

  • -Each row contains every treatment.

  • -Each column contains every treatment.

  • -The most common sizes of LS are 5x5 to 8x8

  • Advantages of the LS Design

  • 1. You can control variation in two directions.

  • 2. Hopefully you increase efficiency as compared to the RBD.

August 30, 2013

Latin Square Design

38
38
 

Disadvantages of the LS Design:

1. The number of treatments must equal the number of

replicates. 2. The experimental error is likely to increase with the size of the square.

August 30, 2013

Business Research Design

39
39

SUMMARY

August 30, 2013

References:

40
40
 
  • 1. Business Research Methods Cooper, Schindler; Tata Mc Graw Hills

  • 2. Marketing Research G C Beri; Tata Mc Graw Hills.

  • 3. Business Research Methods William G Zikmund; Thomson.

  • 4. Marketing Research Tull, Hawkin; PHI

August 30, 2013

Thank you!