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A SEMINAR ON RESITANCE WELDING

SUBMITTED TOPRESENTED BY-

S. CHATTOPADHAYA
(ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR)

YOGENDRA INGH
(2012MT0158)

Resistance Welding
The resistance of metal to the localized flow of current produces heat. Process variables
Current Time Force

Spot welding

DEFINITION
Developed in the early 1900s A process in which the heat required for welding is produced by means of electrical resistance across the two components RW does not requiring the following: Consumable electrodes Shield gases Flux

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION
The heat generated in resistance welding is given by the general expression H=I2RT Where H=heat generated I=current in amperes R=resistance in ohms T=flow time of currents in seconds

MODIFICATION IN FORMULA

H=I2RTK

Where
K<1

TYPES OR RESISTANCE WELDING


RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING RESISTANCE SEAM WELDING RESISTANCE PROJECTION WELDING RESISTANCE FLASH WELDING STUD ARC WELDING

Electrodes

Truncated cone

Dome

Pointed

Electrode tips wear during service, causing nugget size to decrease. Zinc-coating on steel alloys with copper electrodes to form brass. Copper base materials.

electrode

Electrodes may be single or multiple.

electrode

RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING


The strength of welds depends on surface roughness cleanliness Accurate control of and timing of electric current and of pressure are essential in resistance welding
Nugget diameter is up to 10 mm.

Fig: a Cross-section of a spot weld,showing the weld nugget and the indentation of the electrode on the sheet surfaces.This is one of the most commonly used process in sheet-metal fabrication and in automotive-body assembly

RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING


RSW uses the tips of two opposing solid cylindrical electrodes Pressure is applied to the lap joint until the current is turned off in order to obtain a strong weld

Fig: Sequence in the resistance spot welding

RESISTANCE SEAM WELDING


RSEM is modification of spot welding wherein the electrodes are replaced by rotating wheels or rollers The electrically conducting rollers produce a spot weld RSEM can produce a continuous seam & joint that is liquid and gas tight

Fig : (a) Seam-Welding Process in which rotating rolls act as electrode (b) Overlapping spots in a seam weld. (c) Roll spot weld (d) Resistance-welded gasoline tank

Roll spot weld

Overlapping seam weld

Continuous seam weld

Resistance Seam Welding

Welding speed is 1.5 m/min for thin sheet.

APPLICATIONRESW is used inLongitudinal seam of cans for household products ,mufflers, gasoline tanks & other containers.

RESISTANCE PROJECTION WELDING


The electrodes exert pressure to compress the projections.

Nuts and bolts can be welded to sheet and plate by this process.
Metal baskets, oven grills, and shopping carts can be made by RPW. Different thickness plate can be welded.

RESISTANCE PROJECTION WELDING


RPW is developed by introducing high electrical resistance at a joint by embossing one or more projections on the surface to be welded Weld nuggets are similar to spot welding
Fig: a) Resistance projection Welding b)A welded bracket c) & d) Projection welding of nuts r threaded hosses and stack

FLASH WELDING
It is also known as arc welding. Heat is generated from the arc as the ends as the two members contacts An axial force is applied at a controlled rate Weld is formed in plastic deformation

Fig : Flash-welding process for end-to end welding of solid rods or tubular parts

APPLICATION OF FLASH WELDING


Suitable for end to end(1-75 mm dia) or edge to edge(.2-2.5 mm thick) joining of similar or dissimilar metals. Joining pipe and tubular section shapes for metal furniture & window. welding high-speed steels to steel shanks. welding the ends of coils of sheet or wire for continuous operations of rolling mills &wiredrawing equipment.

Stud Welding
Small part or a threaded rod or hanger serves as a electrode Also called as Stud arc welding Prevent oxidation to concentrate the heat generation Portable stud-welding is also available

Fig:The sequence of operation in stud welding,which is used for welding bars threaded rods and various fasteners onto metal plates

APPLICATION OF STUD ARC WELDING


Numerous application in the automotive ,construction ,appliance and shipbuilding industries.

Advantages of Resistance Welding


Similar and dissimilar metals can be jointed. High speed, < 0.1 seconds in automotive spot welds.

Excellent for sheet metal applications, < -inch.


Generally No filler metal. No consumable electrodes, shielded gases or flux.

Process Disadvantages and Limitations


Higher equipment costs than arc welding Power line demands Nondestructive testing Low tensile and fatigue strength Not portable Electrode wear Lap joint requires additional metal process is suitable for manufacturing plants & machine shops

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