6th Edition Charles G. Morris and Albert A.

Maisto
PowerPoint Presentation by H. Lynn Bradman Metropolitan Community College

Understanding Psychology

©Prentice Hall 2003

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Chapter 1

The Science of Psychology

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What Is Psychology?
• Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. • Psychologists are interested in every aspect of human thought and behavior.

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Fields of Psychology • • • • • • • Developmental Physiological Experimental Personality Clinical and Counseling Social Industrial and Organizational ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-4 .

Developmental Psychology • Studies human mental and physical growth from conception to death – Child psychologists – Adolescent psychologists – Life-span psychologists ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-5 .

Physiological Psychology • Investigates the biological basis of human behavior – Neuropsychologists – Psychobiologists – Behavioral geneticists ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-6 .

Experimental Psychology • • • • • • • Learning Memory Sensation Perception Cognition Motivation Emotion ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-7 .

Personality Psychology • Personality psychologists study the differences among individuals. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-8 .

cause. and treatment of psychological disorders. • Counseling psychologists are concerned primarily with “normal” problems of adjustments in life.Clinical and Counseling Psychology • Clinical psychologists are interested primarily in the diagnosis. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-9 .

Social Psychology • Social psychologists study how people influence one another. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-10 .

Industrial and Organizational Psychology • Psychology applied to the workplace • I/O psychologists are interested in selecting and training personnel • Improving productivity and working conditions • The impact of computerization and automation on workers ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-11 .

Enduring Issues in Psychology • • • • • Person/Situation Nature/Nurture Stability/Change Diversity/Universality Mind/Body ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-12 .

Psychology as Science • Scientific method • Theory • Hypotheses ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-13 .

collecting data.Scientific Method • An approach to knowledge that relies on a systematic method of generating hypotheses. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-14 . and explaining the data.

Theory • The systematic explanation of a phenomenon. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-15 .

©Prentice Hall 2003 1-16 . testable prediction derived from a theory.Hypothesis • A specific.

Goals of Psychology • • • • Describe Explain Predict Control or Influence behavior ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-17 .

The Growth of Psychology ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-18 .

– During the late 1800s. people have wondered and written about human behavior and mental processes. – Psychology came into being as a formal. scientific discipline separate from philosophy. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-19 . they began to apply the scientific method to questions that had puzzled philosophers for centuries.The "New Psychology:" A Science of the Mind • Since the time of Plato and Aristotle.

The History of Psychology • The history of psychology can be divided into three main stages: – The emergence of a science of the mind – The behaviorist decade – And the "cognitive revolution" ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-20 .

Structuralism: Wundt and Titchener • Structuralism was concerned with identifying the units of conscious experience. and images. • 1879: Wundt founds psychology’s first laboratory at Leipzig. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-21 . feelings. • Titchener subdivided consciousness into physical sensations.

• James argued that consciousness cannot be broken into elements.Functionalism: William James • Functionalism was concerned with the ongoing use of conscious experience.” ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-22 . • James coined the phrase “stream of consciousness.

• Freud developed a method of therapy called psychoanalysis.Sigmund Freud: Psychodynamic Psychology • Freud focused on the unconscious determinants of behavior. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-23 .

Behaviorism: Watson and Skinner
• Behaviorism is only concerned with behavior that can be observed and measured. • Watson founded behaviorism. • Skinner focused on the role of reinforcement.

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The Cognitive Revolution
• Wertheimer, Köhler, and Koffka were interested in tricks of perception. • The Gestalt movement was concerned with the perception of “good form.” • Coined the phrase “the whole is not equal to the sum of its parts.”

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Existential and Humanistic
• Existentialism is concerned with alienation and apathy in modern life. • Humanism is concerned with helping people realize their full potential.

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feelings. decision making • Expanded the concept of “behavior” to include thoughts. language. learning.Cognitive Psychology • Concerned with memory. and states of consciousness ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-27 . thinking.

Evolutionary Psychology • Concerned with the evolutionary origins of behaviors and mental processes • Their adaptive value and the purposes they continue to serve ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-28 .

communities and societies to flourish. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-29 .Positive Psychology • Focuses on positive experiences • Looks for a positive relationship between positive emotions and physical health • Identifies the factors that allow individuals.

Multiple Perspectives Today • Contemporary psychologists tend to see different perspectives as complimentary. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-30 . • Most agree that the field advances with the addition of new evidence to support or challenge existing theories.

• Women presented papers and joined the national professional association as soon as it was formed in 1892. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-31 .Where Are The Women? • Women have contributed to psychology from its beginnings.

• Some colleges and universities did not grant degrees to women. • Teaching positions were often closed to them. • Professional journals were reluctant to publish their work. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-32 .Where Are The Women? • Women faced discrimination.

's granted in psychology. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-33 .Where Are The Women? • Today women receive more than half of the Ph.D. • They perform key research in all of the psychology subfields.

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and culture. race. understanding human diversity is essential. • Psychologists have begun to examine assumptions based on gender. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-35 .Human Diversity • Today.

Gender Stereotypes • The study of gender similarities and differences has become part of mainstream psychology. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-36 .

• Gender difference studies tend to focus on the extremes of gender differences. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-37 .Feminist Psychology • The most important research findings from the past were based on all-male samples. • Many issues that were not important to male researchers were not studied.

Sexual Orientation • Origins of sexual orientation • Brain differences between heterosexual and homosexual men • Impact of gays and lesbians serving in the military ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-38 .

©Prentice Hall 2003 1-39 . • New APA programs are in place to attract ethnic-minority students to psychology. • Psychologists have developed a better appreciation for the unique challenges faced by individuals from various ethnic backgrounds.Race and Ethnicity • Most ethnic minorities are still underrepresented among the ranks of psychologists.

human actions and life itself. acting. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-40 .Culture • Culture provides modes of thinking. and communicating about how the world works and why people behave as they do • Culture influences – Beliefs and ideals – Interpretation of the meaning of natural events.

Research Methods in Psychology ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-41 .

Research Methods • • • • • Naturalistic Observation Case Studies Surveys Correlational Research Experimental Research ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-42 .

Naturalistic Observation • Observing and recording the behavior of humans or animals in their natural environment ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-43 .

Naturalistic Observation • Advantages – can observe what occurs before and after target behavior – insight into the important factors to study – no artificiality of the laboratory ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-44 .

Naturalistic Observation • Disadvantages – – – – less control over variables cannot imply causality observer bias and subject reactivity target behavior only occurs once ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-45 .

©Prentice Hall 2003 1-46 .Case Studies • Intensive description and analysis of a single individual or just a few individuals.

Case Studies • Advantages – – – – rich description of an individual each individual serves as own control no large groups of participants no random assignment ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-47 .

Case Studies • Disadvantages – generalizability is decreased by small sample size – the individual being studied may be an exception – observer bias ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-48 .

Surveys • A research technique in which questionnaires or interviews are administered to a selected group of people. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-49 .

Surveys • Advantages – large quantity of information – relatively inexpensive ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-50 .

Surveys • Disadvantages – respondents may not be representative – response biases – truthfulness of responses ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-51 .

Correlational Research • A research technique based on the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-52 .

Correlational Research • Advantages – description and prediction possible ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-53 .

Correlational Research • Disadvantages – no control over variables – cannot imply causality ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-54 .

Experimental Method • A research technique in which an investigator deliberately manipulates selected events or circumstances and then measures the effects of those manipulations on subsequent behavior. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-55 .

Experimental Research • Independent variable: – The variable that is manipulated by the experimenter to test its effects • Dependent variable: – The variable that is measured to see how it is changed by the independent variable ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-56 .

Experimental Research • Experimental group: – The group subjected to a change in the independent variable • Control group: – The group not subjected to a change in the independent variable ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-57 .

Experimental Research • Advantages – conclusions about causality can be made ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-58 .

Experimental Research • Disadvantages – more ethical considerations – behavior is constrained to laboratory ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-59 .

Importance of Sampling • Sample: – Selection of cases from a larger population • Random sample: – Each potential participant has an equal chance of being selected • Representative sample: – The characteristics of the participants corresponds closely to the characteristics of the larger population ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-60 .

Ethics and Psychology ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-61 .

APA Ethical Guidelines For Human Subjects • • • • • Informed consent must be documented Awareness of possible risks Limitations on confidentiality specified Limitations on the use of deception Equitable alternatives must be offered if course credit is given for participation ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-62 .

health.APA Ethical Guidelines For Animal Subjects • Researchers must ensure “appropriate consideration of the animal’s comfort. stress. and humane treatment. or privation” when an alternative procedure is available.” • Animals may not be subjected to “pain. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-63 .

Careers in Psychology • Psychology is one of the most popular majors in colleges and universities. • A background in it is useful in a wide number of fields because so many jobs involve a basic understanding of people. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-64 .

Careers in Psychology • Careers for those with advanced degrees in psychology include: – – – – Teaching Research Jobs in government and private business A number of occupations in the mental health field ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-65 .

– Clinical psychologist.Careers in Psychology • Opportunities in the mental health field depend on one's degree of training. – Counseling psychologist and social worker. – Psychiatrist which requires medical training. which involves getting a doctoral degree. ©Prentice Hall 2003 1-66 .

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