where R
M
is the resistance of the filter medium (constant),
and R
C
is the resistance of the cake (varies with V).
The basic differential equation for filtration at constant
pressure drop can thus be obtained as:
) (
1
C M
R R
P
dt
dV
A +
A
=
P k
dt
dV
A
A
=
1
GENERAL THEORY FOR FI LTRATI ON (3/5)
Incompressible Cakes
o = specific cake resistance, cm/g
0
= mass of cake solids per volume of filtrate
) (
1
C M
R R
P
dt
dV
A +
A
=
] ) / ( [
1
0 M
R A V
P
dt
dV
A +
A
=
o
(I.C.: t = 0, V = 0)

.

\

=
A
V
R
C 0
o
B
A
V
K
P
R
A
V
P V
At
M
+

.

\

=
A
+

.

\

A
=
o
2
0
GENERAL THEORY FOR FI LTRATI ON (4/5)
Plot

.

\

V
At
versus

.

\

A
V
Slope =
P
K
A
=
2
0
o
Known ,
0
, AP o can be determined.
* Often, the medium resistance R
M
is insignificant, B = 0.
2
0
2

.

\

A
=
A
V
P
t
o
B
A
V
K
P
R
A
V
P V
At
M
+

.

\

=
A
+

.

\

A
=
o
2
0
GENERAL THEORY FOR FI LTRATI ON (5/5)
[Example] A suspension containing 225 g of carbonyl iron
powder, Grade E, per liter of a solution of 0.01 N NaOH is
to be filtered, using a leaf filter. Estimate the size (area) of
the filter needed to obtain 100 lb of dry cake in 1 h of
filtration at a constant pressure drop of 20 psi. The cake is
incompressible. The specific cake resistance is 10
11
ft/lb.
The resistance of the medium is taken as 0.1 in
1
.
P
R
A
V
P V
At
M
A
+

.

\

A
=
o
2
0
Solution:
3
3
0
lb/ft 0 . 14
g 453.6
lb
ft
L 32 . 28
L
g 225
filtrate of volume
solid cake of mass
=
(
= =
3
3
ft 1 . 7
lb/ft 14.0
lb 100
filtrate of volume = = = V
(To be continued)
[Example] A suspension containing 225 g of carbonyl iron powder, Grade E, per
liter of a solution of 0.01 N NaOH is to be filtered, using a leaf filter. Estimate the
size (area) of the filter needed to obtain 100 lb of dry cake in 1 h of filtration at a
constant pressure drop of 20 psi. The cake is incompressible. The specific cake
resistance is 10
11
ft/lb. The resistance of the medium is taken as 0.1 in
1
.
P
R
A
V
P V
At
M
A
+

.

\

A
=
o
2
0
Solution (contd):
t = filtration time = 1 h
(
= A
2
2 2
2
f
2
f
3
h
s ) 3600 (
s  lb
ft  lb
2 . 32
psi 14.7
/ft lb 10 116 . 2
psi 20 P
= 1.2 10
12
lb/fth
2
o = specific cake resistance = 10
11
ft/lb
R
M
= resistance of the medium = 0.1 in
1
= 1.2 ft
1
= viscosity of the liquid = 1 cp = 2.42 lb/fth (assumed)
(To be continued)
Solution (contd):
P
R
A
V
P V
At
M
A
+

.

\

A
=
o
2
0
12 12
11
10 2 . 1
) 2 . 1 )( 42 . 2 ( 1 . 7
) 10 2 . 1 ( 2
) 0 . 14 )( 10 )( 42 . 2 (
1 . 7
) 1 (
=
A
A
A
2
1.7 10
11
A 71.2 = 0
A = 8.4 ft
2
#
[Example] A suspension containing 225 g of carbonyl iron powder, Grade E, per
liter of a solution of 0.01 N NaOH is to be filtered, using a leaf filter. Estimate the
size (area) of the filter needed to obtain 100 lb of dry cake in 1 h of filtration at a
constant pressure drop of 20 psi. The cake is incompressible. The specific cake
resistance is 10
11
ft/lb. The resistance of the medium is taken as 0.1 in
1
.
[Example] Streptomyces Filtration from an Erythromycin Broth.
Using a test filter, we find the following data for a broth
containing the antibiotic erythromycin and added filter aid:
The filter leaf has a total area of 0.1 ft
2
and the filtrate has a
viscosity of 1.1 cp. The pressure drop is 20 in. of mercury and
the feed contains 0.015 kg dry cake per liter. Determine the
specific cake resistance o and the medium resistance R
M
.
P
R
A
V
P V
At
M
A
+

.

\

A
=
o
2
0
Solution:
(To be continued)
Example: Streptomyces Filtration from an Erythromycin Broth (contd)
Example: Streptomyces Filtration from an Erythromycin Broth (contd)
#
P
R
A
V
P V
At
M
A
+

.

\

A
=
o
2
0
[Example] We have filtered a slurry of sitosterol at constant
pressure through a filtration medium consisting of a screen
support mounted across the end of a Pyrex pipe. We find
that the resistance of the filtration medium is negligible. We
also find the following data in a laboratory test:
On the basis of this laboratory test, predict the number of
frames (30 in 30 in 1 in thick) needed for a plateand
frame press. Estimate the time required for filtering a 63 kg
batch of steroid. In these calculations, assume that the feed
pump will deliver 10 psi and that the filtrate from the press
must be raised against the equivalent of 15 ft head.
(To be continued)
Example: filtering a slurry of sitosterol
Solution (contd):
(a) Predict the number of frames needed
3
3
g/cm 245 . 0
cm 3 . 253
g 62
density Cake = =
Cake volume of 63 kg steroid =
3 5
3
3
cm 10 57 . 2
g/cm 0.245
g 10 63
=
\

A
=

.

\

A
=
A
V
P
t
A
V
P
t
o o
In the laboratory test:
2
2
0
cm) 08 . 5 (
4
g 62
psi) 15 ( 2
min 163
(
(
(
(
=
t
o
2
4
0
g
cm  psi  min
261
2
=
o
Example: filtering a slurry of sitosterol
(To be continued)
(b) Time required for filtering a 63 kg batch of steroid (contd)
Solution:
In the largescale operation:
2 5
2
2
cm 10 09 . 2
in
cm 54 . 2
in ) 30 30 ( 2 18 =
(
= A
psi 5 . 3
(water) head ft 33.9
psi 7 . 14
head ft 15 psi 10 =
(
= AP
min 8 . 6
10 09 . 2
000 , 63
5 . 3
1
261
1
2
2
5
2
0
0
=

.

\

=

.

\

A
=
A
V
P
t
o
Example: filtering a slurry of sitosterol
#
In the laboratory test:
2
4
0
g
cm  psi  min
261
2
=
o
Compressible Cakes
Almost all cakes formed of biological materials are
compressible. As these cakes compress, filtration
rates drop.
To estimate the effects of compressibility, we assume that
the cake resistance o is a function of the pressure drop.
s
P) ( ' A =o o
where o = a constant related largely to the size and shape
of the particles forming the cake
s = the cake compressibility
GENERAL THEORY FOR FI LTRATI ON: Compressible Cakes (1/3)

.

\

=
A
V
R
C 0
o
Recall:
s
P) ( ' A =o o
P s A + = log ' log log o o
Plot logo versus logAP, slope = s, intercept = logo.
GENERAL THEORY FOR FI LTRATI ON: Compressible Cakes (2/3)
s
P) ( ' A =o o
 For a rigid, incompressible cake, s = 0.
 For a highly compressible cake, s ~ 1.
 In practice, s ranges from 0.10.8.
 When values of s are high, one should consider pretreating
the feed with filter aids.
GENERAL THEORY FOR FI LTRATI ON: Compressible Cakes (3/3)

.

\

=
A
V
R
C 0
o
Recall:
[Example] Filtration of Beer Containing Protease. We have a
suspension of Bacillus subtilis fermented to produce the enzyme
protease. To separate the biomass, we have added 1.3 times the
biomass of a Celatom filter aid, yielding a beer containing 3.6
wt% solid, with a viscosity of 6.6 cp. With a Buchner funnel 5
cm in diameter attached to an aspirator, we have found that we
can filter 100 cm
3
of this beer in 24 min. However, previous
studies with this type of beer have had a compressible cake with
s equal to 2/3.
We now need to filter 3000 L of this material in a pilot
plants plateandframe press. This press has 15 frames, each
of area 3520 cm
2
. The spacing between these frames can be
made large, so that we can filter all the beer in one single run.
The resistance of the filter medium is much smaller than the
filter cake, and the total pressure drop that can be used is 65 psi.
How long will it take to filter this beer at 50 psi?
(To be continued)
Example: Filtration of Beer Containing Protease
Solution (contd):
Negligible R
M
2
0
2

.

\

A
=
A
V
P
t
o
Compressible cake,
s
P) ( ' A = o o
2
1
0
2
'

.

\

A
=
A
V
P
t
s
o
Laboratory test:
AP = 14.7 psi (a Buchner funnel attached to an aspirator)
A = ;V = 100 cm
3
; t = 24 min; s = 2/3
2
) cm 5 (
4
t
2
2
3
3 / 1
0
) cm 5 (
4
cm 100
) psi 7 . 14 ( 2
'
min 24
(
(
(
(
=
t
o
o
0
= 4.53 min psi
1/3
cm
2
(To be continued)
2
1
0
2
'

.

\

A
=
A
V
P
t
s
o
o
0
= 4.53 min psi
1/3
cm
2
Pilotplant operation:
V = 3000 L = 3 10
6
cm
3
A = 15 2 3520 cm
2
(Filtration occurs on both sides of the
frame.)
2
6
3 / 1
2
1
0
3520 2 15
10 3
) 50 ( 2
53 . 4
2
'


.

\

=

.

\

A
=
A
V
P
t
s
o
;
= 496 min = 8.3 h
Example: Filtration of Beer Containing Protease
Solution (contd):
#
ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS ROTARY
VACUUM FILTERS
There are three
stages involved in the
operation:
(1) cake formation
(2) cake washing
(3) cake discharge
(not affecting
the filter size
and the cycle
time)
Cake Formation
For compressible cake and negligible medium resistance,
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
'
or
2
'


.

\

A
=

.

\

A
=
A
V
P
t
A
V
P
t
f
s
f
s
o o
where t
f
= cake formation time
V
f
= volume of filtrate collected during the period
of t
f
A = filtration area (submerged area of filter)
ANALYSI S OF CONTI NUOUS ROTARY VACUUM FI LTERS (2/8)
Cake Formation (contd)
2
1
0
2
'


.

\

A
=
A
V
P
t
f
s
f
o
Let t
f
= t
c
and A = A
T
2
1
0
2
'


.

\

A
=
T
f
s
c
A
V
P
t

o

where t
c
= cycle time
A
T
= total filter area
 = fraction of the drum submerged
ANALYSI S OF CONTI NUOUS ROTARY VACUUM FI LTERS (3/8)
Cake Washing
Two factors involved in the stage of cake washing:
(1) The fraction of soluble material remained after the wash
Governing the volume of wash liquid required.
(2) The rate of wash liquid passes through the cake
Controlling the fraction of cycle time for cake
washing.
ANALYSI S OF CONTI NUOUS ROTARY VACUUM FI LTERS (4/8)
An empirical equation for the fraction of soluble material
remained:
n
r ) 1 ( c =
where r = ratio of soluble material remained after the
wash to that originally present in the cake
n = volume of wash liquid divided by the volume
of retained liquid
c = washing efficiency of the cake
Two factors involved in the stage of cake washing:
(1) The fraction of soluble material remained after the wash
Governing the volume of wash liquid required.
ANALYSI S OF CONTI NUOUS ROTARY VACUUM FI LTERS (5/8)
The wash liquid contains no additional
solids.
(1) The cake thickness is constant.
Two factors involved in the stage of cake washing:
(2) The rate of wash liquid passes through the cake
Controlling the fraction of cycle time for cake washing.
(2) Wash rate
= filtration rate at the end of cake formation
The flow of wash liquid is
constant.
ANALYSI S OF CONTI NUOUS ROTARY VACUUM FI LTERS (6/8)
w
w w
At
V
dt
dV
A
= =
1
rate Wash
where V
w
= volume of wash water required, and t
w
= time
required for washing.
Filtration rate at the end of cake formation =
f
t t
dt
dV
A
=
1
2 / 1
0
1
2
1
0
'
) ( 2
or
2
'
(
A
=

.

\

A
=
o
o t P
A
V
A
V
P
t
s
s
2 / 1
0
1
' 2
) ( 1
rate Wash
(
(
A
=

.

\

= =
=
= f
s
t t
t t
t
P
A
V
dt
d
dt
dV
A
f
f
o
2 / 1
0
1
' 2
) (
(
(
A
=
f
s
w
w
t
P
At
V
o
ANALYSI S OF CONTI NUOUS ROTARY VACUUM FI LTERS (7/8)
A useful expression:
2 / 1
0
1
2 / 1
0
1
'
) ( 2
and
' 2
) (
(
(
A
=
(
(
A
=
f
s
f
f
f
s
w
w
t
P
At
V
t
P
At
V
o o
nf
V
V
V
V
V
V
t
t
f
r
r
w
f
w
f
w
2 2 2 = = =
2 / 1
1
0
2 / 1
1
0
) ( 2
'
and
) (
' 2
(
A
=
(
A
=
s
f f
f
s
f
w
w
P
t
A
V
t
P
t
A
V
t
o o
where V
r
= volume of liquid retained
f = ratio of the volume of retained liquid (V
r
) to
the volume of filtrate (V
f
)
ANALYSI S OF CONTI NUOUS ROTARY VACUUM FI LTERS (8/8)
[Example] It is desired to filter a cell broth at a rate of
2000 L/h on a rotary vacuum filter at a vacuum pressure of
70 kPa. The cycle time for the drum is 60 s, and the cake
formation time is 15 s. The broth to be filtered has a
viscosity of 2.0 cp and a cake solid per volume of filtrate of
10 g/L. From laboratory tests, the specific cake resistance
has been determined to be 9 10
10
cm/g. Determine the
area of the filter that is required.
Solution:
For incompressible cake,
P t
V
A
A
V
P
t
f
f f
f
A
=


.

\

A
=
2
or
2
2
0
2
2
0
o
o
(To be continued)
Example: Determine the area of a rotary vacuum filter
Solution (contd):
s  cm
g
0.02 cp 2 = =
g
cm
10 9
10
= o
3
3
0
cm
g
10 10
L
g
10
= =
;
;
3
3
3
cm 8333
s 3600
h
s) 15 (
h
cm
10 2000 =
(


.

\

=
f
V
2
5
2 2
3
s  cm
g
10 0 . 7
cm 100
m
kg
g 1000
s  N
m  kg
m
N
10 70 kPa 70 =
(
= = AP
4 7
5
2 3 10
2
0
2
cm 10 95 . 5
) 10 0 . 7 )( 15 ( 2
) 8333 )( 10 10 )( 10 9 )( 02 . 0 (
2
=
=
A
=
P t
V
A
f
f
o
A = 7715 cm
2
= 0.7715 m
2
2
T
m 09 . 3
15
60
7715 . 0 = = =
f
c
t
t
A A
#
[Example] We want to filter 15,000 L/h of a beer containing
erythromycin using a rotary vacuum filter originally
purchased for another product. Our filter has a cycle time
of 50 s and an area of 37.2 m
2
. It operates under a vacuum
of 20 in Hg. The pretreated broth forms an incompressible
cake with the resistance:
2
0
s/cm 29
2
=
AP
o
We want to wash the cake until only 1% of the retained
solubles is left, and we expect that the washing efficiency
will be 70% and that 1% of the filtrate is retained. (a)
Calculate the filtration time per cycle. (b) Find the washing
time.
Solution:
For incompressible cake,
2
0
2


.

\

A
= =
T
f
c f
A
V
P
t t

o

(To be continued)
Example: Filtration of erythromycin using rotary vacuum filter
Solution (contd):
For incompressible cake,
2
0
2


.

\

A
= =
T
f
c f
A
V
P
t t

o

t
c
= 50 s
A
T
= 37.2 m
2
= 37.2 10
4
cm
2
2
0
s/cm 29
2
=
AP
o
3 3
cm 10 208 L 208
s 3600
h
) s 50 ( ) L/h 000 , 15 ( = =
(
=   
f
V
s 1 . 9
10 2 . 37
10 208
29
2
4
3
2
0
=


.

\

=


.

\

A
=



o
T
f
f
A
V
P
t
(To be continued)
Solution (contd):
n
f
w
r nf
t
t
) 1 ( and 2 c = =
Fraction of retained solubles, r = 0.01
Washing efficiency, c = 0.7
Fraction of filtrate retained, f = 0.01
r = 0.01 = (1 0.7)
n
n = 3.82
t
w
= 2nf t
f
= 2 3.82 0.01 9.1 = 0.7 s
Example: Filtration of erythromycin using rotary vacuum filter
(b) Find the washing time.
#
Application of Rotary Vacuum Filter
* It is commonly used to recover yeast and mycelia.
* Filtration of bacterial fermentation broth will usually
require a precoat of filter aid.
* The separation of cell debris is performed by adding
filter aid to the feed liquor.
CENTRIFUGAL
FILTRATION
* A combination of a
centrifuge and a filter.
* Accumulated solids
can be washed.
CENTRI FUGAL FI LTRATI ON (2/8)
Hydrostatic Equilibrium in a Centrifugal Field
In a rotating centrifuge, a layer of liquid is thrown outward
from the axis of rotation and is held against the wall of the
bowl by centrifugal force.
CENTRI FUGAL FI LTRATI ON (3/8)
Consider a volume element of
thickness dr at a radius r,
dm r dF
2
e =
dr rh dm ) 2 ( t =
;
dF = centrifugal force
dm = mass of liquid in the element
e =angular velocity
= density of the liquid
h = height of the ring
rdr
rh
dF
dP dr r h dF
2 2 2
2
and 2 e
t
e t = = =
Integration ) (
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2 1
r r P P P = A = e
CENTRI FUGAL FI LTRATI ON (4/8)
Principles of Centrifugal Filtration
R
1
= radius of the surface of feed
solution
R
c
= radius of the cakes interface
Darcys law:
v
k
P P k
v
1
or =
A A
=
Set
0
1
o =
k
v
P
0
o =
A
For centrifugal filtration, the
pressure drop varies with the
radius, thus
v
dr
dP
0
o =
CENTRI FUGAL FI LTRATI ON (5/8)
v
dr
dP
0
o =
The total volumetric flow rate, Q = (2trh)v; or
rh
Q
v
t 2
=
(Note: v varies with r.)

.

\

=
rh
Q
dr
dP
t
o
2
0
Integration
c
R
R
h
Q
P
0
0
ln
2

.

\

= A
t
o
The pressure drop (AP) is due to the centrifugal force on
the liquid.
) (
2
1
2
1
2
0
2
R R P = A e
) / ln(
) (
0
2
1
2
0
0
2
c
R R
R R h
Q
=
o
e t
* Note: R
c
is a function of time, and so is Q; however, Q is
not a function of r.
CENTRI FUGAL FI LTRATI ON (6/8)
) / ln(
) (
0
2
1
2
0
0
2
c
R R
R R h
Q
=
o
e t
Mass balance for the solids:
h R R V ) (
2
c
2
0 c 0
= t (where
c
= cake density)
) / ln(
) (
) 2 (
0
2
1
2
0
0
2
0 c
c
c
c
R R
R R h
dt
dR
R
h
dt
dV
Q
= = =
o
t e
t
) / ln(
1
2
) (
0
2
1
2
0
2
c c c
c
R R R
R R
dt
dR
o
e
=
I. C.: t = 0, R
c
= R
0
CENTRI FUGAL FI LTRATI ON (7/8)
) / ln(
1
2
) (
0
2
1
2
0
2
c c c
c
R R R
R R
dt
dR
o
e
=
I. C.: t = 0, R
c
= R
0
The integrated expression is complex,
and can be approximated as:
(
(


.

\



.

\

=
c c
c c
R
R
R
R
R R
R
t
0
2
0
2
1
2
0
2
2
ln 2 1
) ( 2e
o
This is the desired result to find the time needed for
obtaining a cake of thickness (R
0
R
c
).
* Recalling that for a flat cake,
2
0
2

.

\

A
=
A
V
P
t
o
CENTRI FUGAL FI LTRATI ON (8/8)
[Example] We can filter 250 cm
3
of a slurry, containing
0.016 g progesterone () per cm
3
, in 32 min. Our filter
has a surface area of 8.3 cm
2
, a pressure drop of 1 atm, and
a filter medium of negligible resistance. The solids in the
cake have a density of 1.09 g/cm
3
, and the slurry density is
that of water.
We want to use this experiment to estimate the time to
filter 1,600 liters of this slurry through a centrifugal filter.
The filter has a basket of 51 cm radius and 45 cm height. It
rotates at 530 rpm. When it is spinning, the liquid and cake
together are 5.5 cm thick. How long will this filtration take?
Solution:
(
(


.

\



.

\

=
c c
c c
R
R
R
R
R R
R
t
0
2
0
2
1
2
0
2
2
ln 2 1
) ( 2e
o
Need data of o and R
c
.
(To be continued)
[Example] We can filter 250 cm
3
of a slurry, containing 0.016 g
progesterone () per cm
3
, in 32 min. Our filter has a surface
area of 8.3 cm
2
, a pressure drop of 1 atm, and a filter medium of
negligible resistance. The solids in the cake have a density of 1.09 g/cm
3
,
and the slurry density is that of water.
Example: filtration of progesterone (2/3)
Solution (contd):
In the laboratory test,
2
0
2

.

\

A
=
A
V
P
t
o
t = 32 min = 1920 s;
0
= 0.016 g/cm
3
2
6
2 2 6
s  cm
g
10 01 . 1
dyne
cm/s  g
atm
dyne/cm 10 01 . 1
atm 1 =
(
= AP
V = 250 cm
3
; A = 8.3 cm
2
2
6
3 . 8
250
) 10 (1.01 2
) 016 . 0 (
1920

.

\

=
o
o = 2.67 10
8
s
1
(To be continued)
Using centrifugal filtration,
(
(


.

\



.

\

=
c c
c c
R
R
R
R
R R
R
t
0
2
0
2
1
2
0
2
2
ln 2 1
) ( 2e
o
o = 2.67 10
8
s
1
;
c
= 1.09 g/cm
3
; = 1.0 g/cm
3
e = 530 rpm = 55.47 s
1
; R
0
= 51 cm ;
R
1
= 51 5.5 = 45.5 cm
Mass balance for solids:
h R R V
c c
) (
2 2
0 0
= t
(0.016)(1,600 10
3
) = (1.09)t[(51)
2
R
c
2
](45)
R
c
= 49.3 cm
s 466
3 . 49
51
ln 2 1
3 . 49
51
) 5 . 45 51 ( ) 47 . 55 )( 0 . 1 ( 2
) 3 . 49 )( 09 . 1 )( 10 67 . 2 (
2
2 2 2
2 8
=
(
(

.

\


.

\

= t
Solution (contd):
#
Example: filtration of progesterone (3/3)