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Concrete has been of great use worldwide.

Along with other materials, it is used in constructing houses, buildings, bridges, and other infrastructures. It is made mainly of proportions of cement, aggregates (gravel & sand), and water.

Rubber tires are made both of natural and synthetic rubber; chemicals such as carbon black, oils, and waves; which are added to strengthen the rubber and fabric which maybe nylon, polyester, or steel fabric.

Using rubber instead of the conventional coarse aggregate (gravel) has been conceptualized in producing eco friendly innovations. This innovated concrete can be introduced to the people and the market at a lesser cost.

Can discarded rubber tire be a

substitute for aggregates in making concrete slabs? How efficient will this alternative be in terms of strength, durability and eco - friendliness? Is it safe to use discarded rubber tires as a constituent in making concrete slabs? How much will this alternative cost? Will it be cheaper than the conventional aggregate used?

A. Researchers

This study will serve as a preparatory step for future research studies. This will also be beneficial through acquisition of knowledge to students who specialize in Civil Engineering. B. People and Community Assuming that this study will be a success, it may change peoples minds of making concrete slabs made up of discarded rubber tires instead of the conventional aggregate used. It is cheaper and eco friendly. C. Construction Companies If this study will be accepted by the people in the community, this can be a source of business opportunities. D. Environment This study will be most beneficial to the environment through the recycling of the discarded/damaged rubber tires and the innovation of a useful product.

This study will center on the discarded rubber tires that can be a substitute for aggregates in making concrete slabs. The interior part of the discarded rubber tire will be used. Specifically, this study will be conducted to determine the efficiency in terms of strength, durability and eco-friendliness of the said substitute aggregate. The researchers will conduct experimentation, observation and testing of the said substitute aggregate. This study will also determine the safety and cost of the said substitute aggregate than the conventional aggregate used.

(National Building Code of the Philippines) Section 1.01.09. Alternate or new Design, Material, Method of Construction, or Workmanship; Tests: a. Any design, material, method of construction, or workmanship not specifically included in this Code may be used: Provided, That such alternate or new design, material, method of construction, or workmanship is at least the equivalent of those prescribed in this Code in effectiveness.

b.

Tests for design, materials, method of construction, or workmanship shall be prescribed by the Secretary of Public Works and Communication in appropriate rules and regulations therefore.

The scarcity and availability at reasonable rates of sand and aggregate are now giving anxiety to the construction industry. Over years, deforestation and extraction of natural aggregates from river beds, lakes and other water bodies have resulted in huge environmental problems. Erosion of existing topography usually results in flooding and landslides. Moreover, the filtration of rain water achieved by deposits of natural sand is being lost, thereby causing contamination of water reserves used for human consumption.

Hence, to prevent pollution authorities are imposing more and more stringent restrictions on the extraction of natural aggregates and its crushing. The best way to overcome this problem is to find alternate aggregates for construction in place of conventional natural aggregates.
(www.engineeringcivil.com/concrete-aggregatesfrom-discarded-tyre-rubber.html#more-3868)

A research study conducted by a group of Civil

Engineering Students of Northwest Samar State University in the School year 20092010 was about hollow blocks using waste paper. In this study, researchers have focused the investigation on the viability of using paper in hollow blocks making intended for non load bearing.

The investigation covers the following criteria; design

mix of hollow blocks in terms of percentage of waste papers and sand that produces the highest strength in compression, the physical requirements of the manufactured hollow blocks samples and its advantage in terms of cost and quality.

A research study conducted by a group of Civil

Engineering students also by NwSSU, former Tiburcio Tancinco Memorial Institute of Science and Technology school year 2006-2007 was about the use of soft adobe clay, pea size gravel and cement as binder in hollow blocks making replacement for sand that is intended for non load bearing CHB. The aim of the study was to minimize the increase of quarrying of sand that causes the imbalance of our natural resources.

The study utilized the experimental method of research in manufacturing concrete slabs using discarded rubber tires instead of the conventional aggregates (gravel) used. The experimental method of research is the best method fit for the study since its primary aim is to satisfy the statement of the problem through the investigation of relevant variables. To be able to satisfy the objectives, our innovated concrete slabs using rubber aggregates and a mix proportion of the conventional concrete slabs using gravel as coarse aggregates were subjected to testing to obtain and compare their respective strengths as well as the cost of each concrete slab.

A. Test Procedure
Use a container with its known volume to measure each

constituent of the concrete mix.


To reach maximum compressive strength, use Class AA

proportion.
Prepare two molders for the concrete mix with gravel

and the other for the rubber aggregates. Make sure to measure the dimensions of the molders.
Mix the constituents according to the design

proportion, then pour it into the molder.


Leave it to dry.

B. Data Analysis Test and record the compressive strength of two concrete slabs using a Universal Testing Machine (UTM). Whichever slab remains to be intact or has exceeded the compressive strength of the other is a better choice on which aggregate is guaranteed hard and safe.

This research study used cuts of discarded rubber tires as an alternative material instead of gravel in fabricating concrete slabs. The researchers visited some of the vulcanizing shops in Calbayog City and asked for the damaged rubber tires (interior part). These rubber tires were cut into approximately 0.5 in x 0.5 in squares.

The 1:3/2:3 mix proportion or the Class AA proportion was used. Mixing of the constituents of the mixture was measured by a 1.98 X can. Two design mix proportions were manufactured, one with gravel as coarse aggregate and the other with the rubber aggregates. The products were subjected to comparison through machine testing.

RATIO DESIGN MIX CEMENT SAND RUBBER GRAVEL WATER

(kg)

(cu.m)

(cu.m)

(cu.m)

(cu.m)

No. of Concrete Slab Produced

A B

3.75 3.75

0.00594 0.00594

0.01188 -

0.01188

0.002498 0.002498

1 1

RATIO DESIGN MIX CEMENT (kg) SAND (cu.m) RUBBER GRAVEL (cu.m) (cu.m) WATER (cu.m)

No. of Concrete Slab Produced

A B

1.875 1.875

0.00297 0.00297

0.00594 -

0.00594

0.001287 0.001287

1 1

PERCENTAGE

COMPONENTS
Water Cement

MIX A
10.29% 16.31%

MIX B
10.29% 16.31%

Sand
Rubber Gravel

24.47%
48.93% -

24.47%
48.93%

DESIGN MIX A B

INDICATED LOAD (kN) 21 54

ACTUAL LOAD (kN) 11.8 41.8

FLEXURAL STRENGTH MPa 7.23 14.4 PSI 1,048.84 2,087.68

NO. OF

DESIGN
MIX

COMPONENTS

QUANTITY

UNIT COST
(Php)

SIZE

CONCRETE SLAB PRODUCED PER BAG OF CEMENT

Cement 40 kg 0.25 Sand cu.m 0.25 Rubber cu.m Cement 40 kg 0.25 Sand cu.m 0.25 Gravel cu.m

220
150

11.5 x 23 x 3 5.75 x 11.5 x 3 11.5 x 23 x 3 5.75 x 11.5 x 3

10 pcs. 21 pcs.

220 150
175

10 pcs. 21 pcs.

A. Using Rubber Aggregates

The minimum cost acquired for the mix

with rubber as aggregates is Php 370.00 The minimum compressive strength is 1,048.84 PSI. B. Using Gravel The minimum cost acquired for the mix with gravel as aggregates is Php 540.00 The minimum compressive strength is 2,087.68 PSI.

Concrete slabs with discarded rubber tires as

aggregates have lesser compressive strength compared to that of the concrete slabs with the conventional aggregates used, in terms of the average compressive strength obtained. In terms of cost, design mix A is cheaper than design mix B. Using rubber aggregates through the process used in the research study is not reliable since the rubber is less bonded to the cement than gravel is and is still not feasible for use in big constructions. Using discarded rubber tires as substitute for gravel (coarse aggregates) in making concrete slabs is beneficial for the environment since the rubber can be used for better purposes instead of it giving harm to the environment.

Conduct further study for different mixtures to come up

with a better binder suited for the rubber aggregates.


Conduct further study in the processing of the

discarded rubber tires in turning it into thin / small pieces.


This research study can be a good for further

researches related to the innovation of eco-friendly materials used in the field of building infrastructures.