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When converting from Direct to Indirect Speech, the following changes are required : 1.

Punctuations No quote within the sentence Sentence ends with a full stop, regardless whether the direct speech was a command, an exclamation or a statement E.g. Direct: Helen exclaimed, This blouse looks awful! Indirect: Helen exclaimed that that blouse looked awful.

When converting from Direct to Indirect Speech, the following changes are required: 2. Pronouns 1st & 2nd person pronouns changed to 2nd or 3rd person pronouns respectively E.g.1 Direct: Sam asked Kim, Will you come with me?

Indirect: Sam asked Kim if she would go with him.

E.g. 2 Direct: Leon asked them, Will you come with me?

Indirect: Leon asked them if they would go with him.

HOWEVER,
In the case of the 1st person (I) talking to the 2nd person (you), the pronouns remained unchanged. E.g. 3 Direct: I asked you, Will you come with me? Indirect: I asked you if you would go with me.

When converting from Direct to Indirect Speech, the following changes are required:
3. Tenses

Direct Speech
Simple Present E.g. Mary said, I am happy. Present Continuous E.g. Paul said, I am perspiring.

Indirect Speech
Simple Past E.g. Mary said that she was happy. Past Continuous E.g. Paul said that he was perspiring.

Present Perfect E.g. I have fallen, Jenny said.


Present Perfect Continuous E.g. We have been trying, he said.

Past Perfect E.g. Jenny said that she had fallen.


Past Perfect Continuous E.g. He said that they had been trying.

Direct Speech Simple Past E.g. I cried this morning, the child said. Past Continuous E.g. Paul said, I was drawing.

Indirect Speech Past Perfect E.g. The child said that she/he had cried that morning. Past Perfect Continuous E.g. Paul said that he had been drawing.

Change for Modal Auxiliaries


Direct Speech shall may can will Indirect Speech should might could would

However, the tenses of the reported verbs remain unchanged if:


the verb used in the direct speech is in the past perfect tense E.g. Direct : Jane said, I had taken my dinner. Indirect: Jane said that she had taken her dinner.

However, the tenses of the reported verbs remain unchanged if:


the reporting verb is in the present tense E.g.1 Direct: Joanne says, I am happy. Indirect: Joanne says that she is happy. E.g.2 Direct: Jessie says, I lost my keys. Indirect: Jessie says that she lost her keys.

However, the tenses of the reported verbs remain unchanged if:


the statement in the direct speech is a fact E.g. Direct: The Earth is round, the teacher said. Indirect: The teacher said that the Earth is round.

When converting from Direct to Indirect Speech, the following changes are required:
4. Time & Place

Direct Speech
Now Come (here) Ago This These

Indirect Speech
Then Go (there) Before That Those

Today

That day

4. Time & Place Direct Speech Tonight Tomorrow Indirect Speech That night The next day/the following day The previous day The previous night The following week/month/year The previous week/month/year

Yesterday
Last night Next week/month/year Last week/month/year