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Basic Switching Systems 1 (S-BSS1)

August 2001 Copyright 2001 Global Wireless Education Consortium Basic Switching System 1 1

S-BSS1
Copyright 2001 Global Wireless Education Consortium All rights reserved. This module, comprising presentation slides with notes, exercises, projects and Instructor Guide, may not be duplicated in any way without the express written permission of the Global Wireless Education Consortium. The information contained herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be incorporated in any commercial training materials or for-profit education programs, books, databases, or any kind of software without the written permission of the Global Wireless Education Consortium. Making copies of this module, or any portion, for any purpose other than your own, is a violation of United States copyright laws.

Trademarked names appear throughout this module. All trademarked names have been used with the permission of their owners.

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S-BSS1
Partial support for this curriculum material was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement Program under grant DUE-9972380 and Advanced Technological Education Program under grant DUE-9950039. GWEC EDUCATION PARTNERS: This material is subject to the legal License Agreement signed by your institution. Please refer to this License Agreement for restrictions of use.
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Table of Contents
Overview Learning Objectives Public Switched Telephone Network Basic Switching Types of Switching Systems Switch Types (Manufacturers) Contributors 5 6 7 12 23 38 62

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Overview
This module is intended to introduce the basic switching environment, systems, and types of switches found in the Public Switched Telephone network.

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Learning Objectives
After completing this module and all its activities, you will be able to: Explain the different types of switching systems:
Circuit Packet Time Division Space Division

Differentiate between the different types of trunk switching. Identify the major switch types:
5E DMS AXE
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Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

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PSTN Switching Architecture (Star and Mesh Hierarchy)


Started as two nodes (telephones) connected to each other

Grew to more than two nodes wanting to talk with each other. For example, 7 nodes each needing individual connections with every other node. This mesh soon becomes unmanageable and cost prohibitive.

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Public Switched Telephone Network Evolution


Star Architecture

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Trunking

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Trunk Configurations
Tandem

Final Alternate Route High Usage End Office

Final

End Office

BHBS - Busy Hour, Busy Season


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Basic Switching

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Switching Fundamentals
End Office
Remote Switch Unit Host Offices Tandem Offices Access Tandem Offices Combined Local and Access Tandem
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Interoffice Facilities Local Access and Transport Area-LATA


End Office Host Office Remote Switch Unit

End Office

End Office

Local Tandem

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Basic Switch Entity


Central Office A
00 main processor

IF SF

CON
01 main processor

IF

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Switching Nodes Line-to-Line Switching


Central Office A
Called Station 960 - 2001
00 main processor

Disk

Line IF
Calling Station 960-6000

SF

CON
01 main processor

Data Links

Line
IF
Called Station 960-2000

Technician Access/monitor
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Line-to-Trunk Switching
Central Office A NAL
IF Calling Station 630-960-6000 MP

SF SF

CON IF

Central Office B

NAL
IF
Called Station 630-983-3000
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MP SF CON IF

Trunk

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Trunk-to-Trunk Switching
Central Office A NAL
IF Calling Station 630-960-6000 SF MP CON IF

Central Office C
IF SF IF

Central Office D NAL


Called Station 615-361-0000
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MP
CON

IF

SF

MP

CON
IF

(Tandem)

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End Office Functions


Connects customers to the network. Provide dial tone, talk battery and ringing. Telephone number associated with the end office. Connects lines to lines or lines to trunks. Has billing capability.

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Multiple Tandems
IXCs

Tandem Office
2
Final

Tandem Office
3

ACCESS Tandem

OVER FLOW

HU (high usage)

Host Office Remote Switch


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B 4 End Office

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Host/Remote Switching Unit


Host End Office
Umbilical

Other End Office Ring diversity protection routing desired (costly)


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Remote Switch Unit e/w ESA (Emergency Stand Alone)


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Switching System Functions


Typical call: 1. Detection of service request 2. Dialing connection 3. Digital analysis 4. Ringing connection and answer detection 5. Billing timer started if usage sensitive call 6. Talking connection (stable call) 7. Call disconnect

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Types of Switching Systems

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Types of Switching Systems


Circuit Switching Space-Division Switching Time-Division Switching Packet-Switching

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Circuit Switching

M D F

Twisted Pair

Graphic courtesy of KnowledgeLink, Inc.


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Generic Circuit Switched Network


C

A B

3 6

D E

4 5

Permanently Dedicated Dedicated During Entire Session


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Node User

Graphic courtesy of KnowledgeLink, Inc.


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Space Division Switch


1 2 3

Inputs
4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
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Outputs
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Time Multiplexed Switch


Digital Switch Network
Interface Device

TSI

TMS
PCM

TSI

Interface Device

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Time Division Switching


Input Buffer
11
1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1

Output Buffer
1
1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1

In

2
1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0

2
1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0

Out

34
0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1

4
0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1

43
0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1

3
0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1

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Packet Switching
Circuit Switched Network C Packet Switched Network C

A B

1 4

3 6

D E

A B

1 4

3 6

D E F

5 F

Dedicated During Entire Session Permanently Dedicated


Graphic courtesy of KnowledgeLink, Inc.
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PAD User Node

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Packet Switching, cont.


Circuit Switched Network C Packet Switched Network C

A B

1 4

3 6

D E

A B

1 4

3 6

D E F

5 F

Dedicated During Entire Session Permanently Dedicated


Graphic courtesy of KnowledgeLink, Inc.
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PAD User Node

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Packet Efficiency
Circuit Switched Network C Packet Switched Network C

A B

1 4

3 6

D E

A B

1 4

3 6

D E F

5 F

Dedicated During Entire Session Permanently Dedicated


Graphic courtesy of KnowledgeLink, Inc.
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PAD User Node

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Packet Switched Data


PSTN

DIAL-UP Ethernet LAN

Interconnect Gateway

ROUTER DATA Network


802.5 Token Ring

Graphic courtesy of KnowledgeLink, Inc.


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Conventional Signaling

Local Local Local C.O. C.O.

Tandem Tandem C.O. C.O.

Local Local C.O. C.O.

Interoffice Trunk Facilities

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Common Channel Signaling (CCS)


A
Local C.O.

X
Tandem C.O.

B
Local C.O.

Signaling STP
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CCS/SS7 Network
CO SSP

AT AT SSP SSP

STP STP STP

SCP SCP

CO CCSSO

Message Trunks Signaling Links

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Private Branch Exchange (PBX)


PBX

End Office

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Switch Types (Manufacturers)

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5ESS-2000 - Block Diagram


Switching Module (SM) LU MCTU2 SMP DLTU TSI GDSU LDSU TMS
Message Switch CMP 3B Central Control

Communication Module (CM)

ISLU

I/O Processor (IOP)

IDCU PSU

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5ESS Switch Module


Switching Switching Module Module (SM) (SM) MCTU2 MCTU2 LU SMP DLTU TSI GDSU LDSU TMS
Message Switch CMP

Communication Communication Module Module (SM) (SM)

ISLU

IDCU PSU

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5ESS Communication Module


Switching Switching Module Module (SM) (SM) MCTU2 MCTU2 LU SMP

Communication Communication Module Module (CM) (SM)

DLTU
TSI GDSU LDSU TMS
Message Switch CMP

ISLU

IDCU PSU

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5ESS Administrative Module


Administrative Administrative Module Module (AM) (AM)
3B Central Control

Disk Main Store

CM

I/O Processor (IOP)

MCC
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Switching Module 2000


Control Messages
Switching Module (SM) MTCU2 LDSF/GDSF TSIS-0

SMP
QLPS TSIS-9 TMS
Message Switch CMP

QGP To AM

AIU

PSU2

DNU-S Communication Module (CM)

LU
IDCU ISLU2 LU DLTU2 MMSU DCTU
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DMS 100/200 Block Diagram


PERIPHERAL MODULES PM

DS30

NETWORK MODULES NM

MESSAGE LINKS MAINTENANCE AND ADMINISTRATION MAA


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CENTRAL CONTROL COMPLEX CCC


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DMS - Peripheral Module


2B+D 2B+D

LCME LCM OPAC RSC-S RLCM LCM RSC-S RCU SLC-96 RDT
Digital Digital Trks Trks

LGCI DTC

LGC TM LTC MTM SCM ESMA


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NM

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DMS - Network Module


JNET A Side PM B Side Network Message Controller
Plane 1 Plane 0 Junctors

CCC
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SuperNode
NETWORK AREA MTCE & ADMIN AREA SYNCHRONIZATION MESSAGE LINKS

DMS BUS

CLK 0

MESSAGE SWITCH 0

CLK 1

MESSAGE SWITCH 1

DMS SUPERNODE

LINKS

DS512

MEMORY

DMS CORE

CPU 0

CPU 1

MEMORY SLM

COMPUTING MODULE SYSTEM LOAD MODULE


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SLM 0 CROSSOVER BUSSES

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DMS - Maintenance and Administrative Area


CCC MAA
IOC 0 IOC 11

Card 0 MTC

Card 8 TC VDU

Card 0 DDC

Card 8 TC

Mag Tape

VDU

Printer VDU

Disk Drive VDU

VDU Modem

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EWSD Block Diagram


Analog Analog Lines Lines ISDN ISDN Basic Basic Analog Analog Trunks Trunks

DLU DLU CB

LTG SN
CCNC CPC MB CP CP CCG OA&M OA&M

SS7 SS7 Links Links ISDN Primary/T1 ISDN Primary/T1 Links Links

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EWSD - Digital Line Unit Subsystem


DLU
Lines SLM (1) 0 Bus Dist 0
DIUD

1 0
DLUC

LTG

Lines SLM (n)

Functional Units
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EWSD - Line/Trunk Group Subsystem


SDCA

SN 1 SN 0

DLU

DIUs

Central Section

SDCA

LTGC
SDCA

Digital trunks to other CO

DIUs

Central Section

SDCA

LTGC
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EWSD - Switch Network


SN 1 SN 0 LTG
TSC 0
SSG 0

LTG
TSC 1 SSG 1

CCNC
CP COMPLEX
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EWSD - Common Channel Network Control Subsystem


1 0

CCNC
MUX
1 0

CP
CCNP
1 0
CCNP CCNP

SILTG
31 SILTG

1 0

SN
MUX MUX

IOP MB

0 SILTG

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EWSD - Coordination Processor Complex


SN CCNN
TSG TSG SSG SSG

CP CP 113 113

MB MB 1 1 MB MB 0 0 MBU MBU LTG LTG MBU MBU SGU SGU

CCG CCG 1 1 CCG CCG 0 0

CP COMPLEX
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AXE Block Diagram


SSS
GROUP GROUP SWITCHING SWITCHING SYSTEM SYSTEM

TSS

RP SPS FMS
DCS MCS MCS

RP

RP RP BUS
CENTRAL PROCESSOR SUBSYSTEM

APT APZ

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AXE - APT
APT
SSS
GROUP SWITCHING SYSTEM

TSS

APZ
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AXE APZ

APT APZ
RP SPS FMS FMS
DCS DCS MCS

RP

RP RP BUS
CENTRAL CENTRAL PROCESSOR SUBSYSTEM

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Industry Contributors
The following organizations provided materials and resource support for this module:
Telcordia Technologies, Inc. (http://www.telcordia.com)

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Individual Contributors
The following individuals and their organization or institution provided materials, resources, and development input for this module: Dr. Bruce Black
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology http://www.rose-hulman.edu/

Dr. Philip DiPiazza


Florida Institute of Technology http://www.fit.edu/

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