Testing the achievement motivation in case of recruiting new and young employees in the german public service

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Structure of presentation:
Introduction  Explaining the term „achievement motivation“  Theories of achievement motivation  Is the motivation of achievement an important demand to find new employees?  Methods of testing achievement motivation  Summary/Resume/Result

16. Juni 2009 Patrick Lenger

Structure of presentation:
Introduction  Explaining the term „achievement motivation“  Theories of achievement motivation  Is the motivation of achievement an important demand to find new employees?  Methods of testing achievement motivation  Summary/Resume/Result

16. Juni 2009 Patrick Lenger

1.Introduction:
Leasing questions through the presentation: 1.1 What is „achievement motivation“? What does the term exactly mean? 1.2 How can you visualize achievement motivation with the help of tests? Is achievement motivation measurable anyway? 1.3 Which theories are represented in the science of motivation?

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Structure of presentation:
Introduction  Explaining the term „achievement motivation“  Theories of achievement motivation  Is the motivation of achievement an important demand to find new employees?  Methods of testing achievement motivation  Summary/Resume/Result

16. Juni 2009 Patrick Lenger

2.Explaining the term „achievement motivation“:
2.1 performance (achievement) 2.2 motivation 2.3 „achievement motivation“

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Definition of „Performance“:

Physically Performance = Work
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Performance consists of different factors:

 

Capacity of performance (intelligence, expertise, age, personality, healthy) Achievement motivation Factors, which are depending on the person (character)

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Definition of „performance“:
The relationship between these factors is called „dopełniające się“  dopełniające się means: A shortage in of these factors can only removed by an intensification other another factor
 

RESULT: achievement motivation is part of the human „performance“ in the job
Patrick Lenger

16. Juni 2009

2.Explaining the term:
2.1 performance (achievement) 2.2 motivation 2.3 „achievement motivation“

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Definition of „motivation“:
2 terms are in the fore:
 

Motiv Motivation

Def.: „Motiv“  Something that causes a person to act; „INCENTIVE“ „AIM“ (intrinsic or extrinsic incentive)  For example: needs (hunger)

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Definition of „motivation“:
Def.: „Motivation“  latin word: „movere“ english: „moving“  Activation of a motiv to earn a special aim (goal)  „Willingness of action esp. Behaviour“  Reason for doing something  Motivation only starts with „INCENTIVIES“ (intrinsic/extrinsic)

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Definition of „motivation“:
Definition in the business world:

„Readiness of employees to evidence good performances (work)“

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

2.Explaining the term:
2.1 performance (achievement) 2.2 motivation 2.3 „achievement motivation“

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Definition of the whole term „achievement motivation“:
„Somebodys will to realize his performance ability“ Human work consists of 3 main parts:  „Demand of performance by an organisation“  „Factors, which are not depending on human beings“  „Offer of performances by employees“  Achievement motivation is part of the „offer of performances by an employee“
16. Juni 2009 Patrick Lenger

Definition of the whole term „achievement motivation“:
Result: „achievement motivation gives us a clue how much an employee is willing to carry out his performance on his job“
16. Juni 2009 Patrick Lenger

Structure of presentation:
Introduction  Explaining the term „achievement motivation“  Theories of achievement motivation  Is the motivation of achievement an important demand to find new employees?  Methods of testing achievement motivation  Summary/Resume/Result

16. Juni 2009 Patrick Lenger

3. Theories of achievement motivation:
3.1 Hierachy of needs by A. Maslow 3.2 Theory of achievement motivation by David McClelland 3.3 Theory of achievement motivation by John William Atkinson
16. Juni 2009 Patrick Lenger

3. Theories of achievement motivation:
3.1 Hierachy of needs by A. Maslow 3.2 Theory of achievement motivation by David McClelland 3.3 Theory of achievement motivation by John William Atkinson
16. Juni 2009 Patrick Lenger

Hierachy of needs by A.Maslow
    

Name: Abraham Harold Maslow Birth: 01.04.1908 in Brooklyn, New York studied law was the founder of the humanistic psychology died in 1970 in case of a heart attack
Patrick Lenger

16. Juni 2009

Hierachy of needs by A.Maslow
  

In the 1950´s: evolved a theory (pyramid) about the human needs The human basic needs develop themselve in a stipulated order The lowest motiv is so long the most important motiv, as long as it is not satisfied If the motiv will be satisfied, it goes to the next most important motiv on the hierachy (pyramid) He is called the „father of modern management“

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Hierachy of needs by A.Maslow
Selfactualization

Esteem needs

Social needs

Safety needs

Physiological needs
16. Juni 2009 Patrick Lenger

Hierachy of needs by A.Maslow
Reduction to 3 classes of needs:
  

Existence needs (physiolocigal and safety needs) Relatedness needs (social needs) Growth needs (esteem needs, self-actualization)

 If needs are not satisfied human beings are motivated and want to satisfy them (INCENTIVIES, MOTIVES)

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

3. Theories:
3.1 Hierachy of needs by A. Maslow 3.2 Theory of achievement motivation by David McClelland 3.3 Theory of achievement motivation by John William Atkinson
16. Juni 2009 Patrick Lenger

Theory of achievement motivation by David McClelland

Birth: 20.05.1917 in Mt. Vernon, New York worked 30 years for the Harvard University became famous for his researches in achievement motivation developed with Atkinson the „Thematic Apperception Test“ (TATtest) died in March 1998 in age of 80

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Theory of achievement motivation by David McClelland
He proceeded from 3 central and dominating needs:
2. 3. 4. 

need for achievement (nAch) need for affiliation (nAff) need for power (nPow) important thesis for this theory:

Attemption to avoid: • losing power • failure in job or exercise

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Theory of achievement motivation by David McClelland
Need for achievement (nAch):
People with a high nAch want to be challenged by exercises with a

high standard (looking for praise and success)  manager

Need for affiliation (nAff):
People with a high nAff needing harmonious relationships and want to feel accepted by other people

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Theory of achievement motivation by David McClelland
Need of power (nPow):
2 types of nPow:  institutional  people want to direct other people  personal  people want to organize the efforts of others to further the goals of the organization (more EFFECTIVENESS)

Result:
 

Motivation arise from dominating needs (motives) as well similar to the theory of Maslow everyone has these needs  but they are malleable by culture or personal experience

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

3. Theories:
3.1 Hierachy of needs by A. Maslow 3.2 Theory of achievement motivation by David McClelland

3.3 Theory of achievement motivation by John William Atkinson
16. Juni 2009 Patrick Lenger

Theory of achievement motivation by John William Atkinson

Birth: 31.12.1923 in Jersey City, New Jersey was world war II veteran, teacher, and psychologist developed with McClelland the „TAT-test“ died: 27.10.2003

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Theory of achievement motivation by John William Atkinson
Very important for this theory are 2 terms: 2. Fear of failure 3. Hope to success „Setting aims“ depend on 2 facts:  probability of success  incentive of success

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Theory of achievement motivation by John William Atkinson
probability of success:  The easier an exercise is the higher is the probability to have success Incentive of success:  The Incentive of success increases with the difficulty of an exercise

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Theory of achievement motivation by John William Atkinson

Atkinson put his main emphasis on „the difficulty of an exercise“ (level of exercise)  What do you want to reach??  high or low level??

Result: The motiv of performance (achievement) consist of 2 individual motives:  searching for success (high level)  avoiding failure (low level)

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Structure of the presentation:
Introduction  Explaining the term „achievement motivation“  Theories of achievement motivation  Is the motivation of achievement an important demand to find new employees?  Methods of testing achievement motivation  Summary/Resume/Result

16. Juni 2009 Patrick Lenger

Achievement motivation – Important demand?

achievement motivation (will to carry out his performance on the job) = basis of human work  important for the selection of new employees! it doesn‘t matter how intelligent/able someone is

non-motivated employees:  will not prove their work  are not able to exhaust 100% of their capacity of capability  not efficient for an organization!!

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Achievement motivation – important demand?
personnel department must answer 2 questions:

how hard tries the applicant to have success? how hard tries the applicant to avoid failure?

 compare wih theory of John William Atkinson

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Structure of the presentation:
   

 

Introduction Explaining the term „achievement motivation“ Theories of achievement motivation Is the motivation of achievement an important demand to find new employees? Methods of testing achievement motivation Summary/Resume/Result

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Methods of testing achievement motivation:

5.1. Inventory of achievement motivation by Schuler (germ.: LMI) 5.2. BIP = Inventory by the university of Bochum 5.3. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT-test)

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Methods of testing achievement motivation:

5.1. Inventory of achievement motivation by Schuler (germ.: LMI) 5.2. BIP = Inventory by the university of Bochum 5.3. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT-test)

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Inventory of achievement motivation (LMI)
sphere of operation:
 

developed by Schuler in 2001 used in fields like personell selection and management, sportpsychology, science of motivation and science of personality practicable from 16 year old people on
Patrick Lenger

16. Juni 2009

Inventory of achievement motivation (LMI)
proceeding:
   

17-scale test with 170 items measuring achievement motivation in the job each scale has 10 items (questions which must be answered) items are, for the most part, couched in a context with work length: normal test 35 min. small test 10 min.

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Inventory of achievement motivation (LMI)
Example for itmes

DOMINANCE: tendency to exercise power over other people  taking initiative and control over activities FEARLESSNESS: degree of absence of a fear of failing at difficult tasks

FLEXIBILITY, SELF-CONTROL, GOAL SETTING, INTERNALITY…….

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Inventory of achievement motivation (LMI)
representation/analysis:
 

analysis by an extern firm graphicaly presentation with numbers  comprehending to oneself and outstanding people get an expert opnion as well
Patrick Lenger

16. Juni 2009

Methods of testing achievement motivation:

5.1. Inventory of achievement motivation by Schuler (germ.: LMI) 5.2. BIP = Inventory by the university of Bochum 5.3. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT-test)

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Inventory by the university of Bochum (BIP)
sphere of operation:  used in fields personell selection and management  suitable for coaching-exercises to find the strong and weak sides of an employee  shows in which sphere you can get better  practicable up from 20 year old people and/or for working people  developed by students in the 90‘s and continuously developed into

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Inventory by the university of Bochum (BIP)
proceeding:  consists of 251 items (stetemnts) and 17 scales (characteristics)  test persons must value job specific statements (for example „I like taking full responsibility for decisions“) test has 4 personality characteristic:  social competence  psychic consitution  professional orientation  the way of working

length: 30-60 min.

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Inventory by the university of Bochum (BIP)
representation/analysis:
 

analysis by an extern firm graphicaly presentation with numbers  comprehending to oneself and outstanding people get an expert opnion as well
Patrick Lenger

16. Juni 2009

Methods of testing achievement motivation:

5.1. Inventory of achievement motivation by Schuler (germ.: LMI) 5.2. BIP = Inventory by the university of Bochum 5.3. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT-test)

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Thematic Apperception Test (TATtest)
sphere of operation:  developed in 1935 and used first time by Henry A. Murry, american psychologist

years later McClelland worked on the test to measure motives of achievement motivation for the first time can be used in every section of life, especially used in personel management has no limitation for a kind of people or age
Patrick Lenger

16. Juni 2009

Thematic Apperception Test (TATtest)
proceeding:  test persons get black-white pictures (allowed to look at 15-30 sec.)
 

situations in the jobs  must tell a story What goes on? What thoughts or feelings has the person in the picture?........ length: depending on how many pictures the person shall see and tell a story (1 story 4 min.)
Patrick Lenger

16. Juni 2009

Thematic Apperception Test (TATtest)
representation/analysis:
  

only a psychologist can interpret the answers psychological expert opinion is needed or/and graphicaly presentation with numbers as well

 PROBLEM: Definition of criterions (motives) and intuitive test!!!
16. Juni 2009 Patrick Lenger

Structure of the presentation:
   

 

Introduction Explaining the term „achievement motivation“ Theories of achievement motivation Is the motivation of achievement an important demand to find new employees? Methods of testing achievement motivation Summary/Resume/Result

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

1.1 What is „achievement motivation“? What does the term exactly mean? 1.2 How can you visualize achievement motivation with the help of tests? Is achievement motivation measurable anyway? 1.3 Which theories are represented in the science of motivation?

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Summary/Resume/Result

tests to measure achievement motivation must be used in recruiting new employees achievement motivation is 1 condition for for working in the job

Problem in the public sector:  payment in the private sector depends on performance; jobs are better paid  public sector needs high motivated employees

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Summary/Resume/Result
 

achievement motivation is measurable visuable! tests are practicable and shall be used

with practical orientation: In organizations of the public sector are no tests to measure achievement motivation of apllicants!!! REASON: question of costs!!!!!! and/or the importance of achievement motivation is underestimated

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger

Thanks for listening and your attention!!

16. Juni 2009

Patrick Lenger