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Chapter 17 The Beginning of Time

How far/back in time can we see with our current telescopes? What is the farthest we could in principle see?

Only until 380,000 years after the beginning…

17.1 The Big Bang
Our Goals for Learning • What were conditions like in the early universe? • What is the history of the universe according to the Big Bang theory?

What were conditions like in the early universe? .

Universe must have been much hotter and denser early in time .

The early universe must have been extremely hot and dense .

Photons converted into particle-antiparticle pairs and vice-versa E = mc2 Early universe was full of particles and radiation because of its high temperature .

The very instant of creations we do not know how to describe. And we have a theory for up to 10-38 seconds after the big bang. In the labs we created conditions up to 10-10 seconds after the Big Bang. .Today.

What is the history of the universe according to the Big Bang theory? .

There are some particles which interact only through this force (and gravity). and is responsible for all chemical and biological interactions. Weak Force: important in nuclear fusion and fission. in atoms and molecules.Let’s step back: There are four known forces in universe: Gravity: Electromagnetism: it acts among charged particles. binds nuclei together. . Like neutrinos and WIMPs (dark matter). Strong Force: important only on very small distances.

D. Gravity Electromagnetism Strong Force Weak Force .Thought Question Which of the four forces keeps you from sinking to the center of the Earth? A. B. C.

B.Thought Question Which of the four forces keeps you from sinking to the center of the Earth? A. Gravity Electromagnetism Strong Force Weak Force . C. D.

liquid and vapor as just a various states of water) .Do forces unify at high temperatures? (think about ice.

Do forces unify at high temperatures? Yes! (Electroweak) .

Do forces unify at high temperatures? Yes! (Electroweak) Maybe (GUT) .

Do forces unify at high temperatures? Yes! (Electroweak) Maybe (GUT) Who knows? (String Theory) .

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gravity froze out – separated from other forces.we have no theory of quantum gravity.Planck Era Before Planck time (~10-43 sec) Random fluctuation of energy/particle/space . . At the end of Plank era.

. At the end of GUT era strong force froze out.GUT Era Lasts from Planck time (~10-43 sec) to end of GUT force (~10-38 sec). There are some theories proposed which link GUT forces. but at least we have some idea how that could work. Still unconfirmed.

quarks. Universe was extremely hot and photons had enough energy to produce even the heaviest particles (most of these particles do not exist as free particles today).Since this time. …and their anti-matter counterparts). . space was field with photons (radiation) and all elementary particles we know of (electrons. Particles would then annihilate back to photons – the universe consisted of the matter-radiation sea (soup).

After this instant all forces became forever distinct in the Universe. .Electroweak Era Lasts from (10-38 sec) to end of electroweak force (10-10 sec).

We have direct experimental evidence of the transition from electroweak force to two separate forces: electromagnetic and weak. We probed in the lab physics of the Universe when it was just 10-10 seconds old! To get a better idea: Temperature at the end of this era (1015K) was 100 million times hotter than in the Sun! .

Particle Era
In particle era it became cool enough so that quarks had combined producing protons and neutrons! The era ended when universe became too cold (1012 K) for photons to produce protons and neutrons. The total number of protons and neutrons (and antiprotons/ antineutrons) was sealed at that time. Photons were still producing electrons, and neutrinos, and got produced back by their annihilation…

Universe consisted of protons, neutrons, on one hand, and the soup of photons producing electrons, neutrinos… on the other.

But, amounts of matter (protons/neutrons) and antimatter (antiprotons/antineutrons) was still nearly equal.

How much anti-matter is left in today's Universe?
If the Universe had exactly the same amount of protons and antiprotons how would it look like today?

Era of Nucleo-synthesis
There were roughly 1 extra proton for every 109 proton-antiproton pairs!
This era begins with matter annihilating remaining antimatter at ~ 0.001 sec. What was left was universe containing only matter, as we know it today!

After that. trace amounts of deuterium and Li) where made in the first 3 minutes! The Universe expanded so much by than. All elements the Universe started off with (75% H. and synthesis of nuclei ceased. Why elements heavier than He did not form in the early Universe? . This era ended when Universe was 3 minutes old. became to far apart. making He and some deuterium and Li. p and n began to fuse. 25% He. that p&n.

Era of Nuclei After the era of nucleosynthesis the Universe consisted of p. never managing to travel long between collisions (in what layer of the Sun does the similar condition exists?) . (no neutral atoms existed yet) Photons were bouncing off these charged particles. He nuclei and free electrons.

000 years. cosmic microwave background radiation. All Universe is bathed in this. they didn’t have any free charged particles to bounce from anymore. we still can see this photons today. so called. They just flashed through the Universe. The Universe suddenly became transparent for photons. at age of ~ 380.Era of Atoms Universe has cooled enough. so that atoms could form (and photons had not enough energy to ionize them again). It arrives to us from every point in space. and amazingly enough. .

We have already discussed the rest of the story in the previous chapters… .Era of Galaxies Galaxies form at age ~ 1 billion years.

2) The Big Bang theory correctly predicts the abundance of helium and other light elements. .Primary Evidence for Big Bang theory 1) We have detected the leftover radiation from the Big Bang.

It was so hot and dense that the energy of radiation could turn into particles of matter and antimatter. which then collided and turned back into radiation. .What have we learned? • What were conditions like in the early universe? • The early universe was filled with radiation and elementary particles.

What have we learned? • What is the history of the universe according to the Big Bang theory? .

17.2 Evidence for the Big Bang Our Goals for Learning • How do we observe the radiation left over from the Big Bang? • How do the abundances of elements support the Big Bang? .

How do we observe the radiation left over from the Big Bang? .

they got Nobel Prize. They noticed that wherever they point their antenna (designed for satellite communications) to.The cosmic microwave background – the radiation left over from the Big Bang – was detected by Penzias & Wilson in 1965. At the end. for providing first evidence for Big Bang theory. which they tried hard to get rid off. . they get some unexpected noise.

Background radiation from Big Bang has been freely streaming across universe since atoms formed at temperature ~ 3.000 K: visible/IR .

73 K – thermal radiation the temperature of the night sky.Background has perfect Corresponds to a temperature of 2. spectrum at temperature 2.73 K Expansion of universe has redshifted thermal radiation from that time to ~1000 times longer wavelength: microwaves (part of radio waves) .

CLICK TO PLAY MOVIE .

by only about 0. These variations indicate that the density of the early universe did differ from place to place – the seeds of structure formation were present during the era of nuclei.COBE detected the seeds of future structure formation: the temperature of universe varies slightly.01%. .

COBE (1993) WMAP (2003) .

WMAP gives us detailed baby pictures of structure in the universe .

How do the abundances of elements support the Big Bang? .

but people did not know how. It meant that the Universe was once hot enough for nuclear fusion of H to He to happen.73 K. The result. is another success of this theory. the fact that Universe contains so much He was a puzzle.Before the Big Bang theory. 25% He. tells us precisely how hot was the Universe in the distant past and exactly how much He should have been made. . The fact that the temperature of microwave background is 2.

Abundances of other light elements agree with Big Bang model having 4.4% of critical density of normal matter – more evidence for WIMPS! .

Thought Question Which of these abundance patterns is an unrealistic chemical composition for a star? A. B. 5% He. 70% H. 1% other . D. 27% He. 25% He.02% other 75% H. less than 0. 2% other 95% H.02% other 72% H. C. less than 0. 28% He.

27% He. C. 25% He. D.02% other 72% H. 2% other 95% H.02% other 75% H. 28% He. less than 0. B. 1% other .Thought Question Which of these abundance patterns is an unrealistic chemical composition for a star? A. 5% He. less than 0. 70% H.

spectacularly confirming a key prediction of the Big Bang theory. Its spectrum matches the characteristics expected of the radiation released at the end of the era of nuclei.What have we learned? • How do we observe the radiation left over from the Big Bang? • Telescopes that can detect microwaves allow us to observe the cosmic microwave background—radiation left over from the Big Bang. .

. This matches observations of the cosmic abundances.What have we learned? • How do the abundances of elements support the Big Bang? • The Big Bang theory predicts the ratio of protons to neutrons during the era of nucleosynthesis. another spectacular confirmation of the Big Bang theory. and from this predicts that the chemical composition of the universe should be about 75% hydrogen and 25% helium (by mass).

17.3 The Big Bang and Inflation Our Goals for Learning • What aspects of the universe were originally unexplained by the Big Bang model? • How does inflation explain these features of the universe? • How can we test the idea of inflation? .

but it is useful addition to the standard Big Bang theory: it helps solve some features of Universe unexplained by standard Big Bang model. . The universe expanded from to in just seconds! Do you know for some other period in which universe was expanding exponentially fast? It presumably happened at the end of GUT era. the huge amount of energy was released and it caused this rapid expansion. The idea (like many others) sounds bizzare.What is cosmological inflation? A brief period of exponentially fast expansion of the Universe. When the strong force separated.

What aspects of the universe were originally unexplained by the Big Bang model? .

Mysteries Needing Explanation 1) Where does structure come from? (how did density enhancements come about) 2) Why is the overall distribution of matter so uniform? 3) Why is the density of the universe so close to the critical density? (it could have been whatever number and it has exactly this. critical density value) .

These ripples in density then become the seeds for all structures .Inflation can make all the structure by stretching tiny quantum ripples to enormous size.

How can microwave temperature be nearly identical on opposite sides of the sky? .

Regions now on opposite side of the sky were close together before inflation pushed them far apart .

Density = Critical Density > Critical Overall geometry of the universe is closely related to total density of matter & energy Density < Critical .

causing overall density of matter plus energy to be very close to critical density .Inflation of universe flattens overall geometry like the inflation of a balloon.

How can we test the idea of inflation? .

Patterns of structure observed by WMAP tell us ―genetic code‖ of universe .

Observed patterns of structure in universe agree (so far) with what inflation should produce .

“Genetic Code” Inferred from CMB • Overall geometry is flat – Total mass+energy has critical density • Ordinary matter ~ 4.7 billion years .4% of total • Total matter is ~ 27% of total – Dark matter is ~ 23% of total – Dark energy is ~ 73% of total • Age of 13.

4% of total • Total matter is ~ 27% of total – Dark matter is ~ 23% of total – Dark energy is ~ 73% of total • Age of 13.7 billion years In excellent agreement with observations of present-day universe and models involving inflation and WIMPs! .“Genetic Code” Inferred from CMB • Overall geometry is flat – Total mass+energy has critical density • Ordinary matter ~ 4.

. • (3) The fact that the actual density of matter is close to the critical density. • (2) The overall smoothness of the universe on large scales.What have we learned? • What aspects of the universe were originally unexplained by the Big Bang model? • (1) The origin of the density enhancements that turned into galaxies and larger structures.

. random quantum fluctuations to sizes large enough for them to become the density enhancements around which structure later formed. everything we can observe today was close enough together for temperatures and densities to equalize.What have we learned? • How does inflation explain these features of the universe? • (1) The episode of inflation stretched tiny. prior to inflation. • (3) Inflation caused the universe to expand so much that the observable universe appears geometrically flat. implying that its overall density of mass plus energy equals the critical density. • (2) The universe is smooth on large scales because.

What have we learned? • How can we test the idea of inflation? • Models of inflation make specific predictions about the temperature patterns we should observe in the cosmic microwave background. . The observed patterns seen in recent observations by microwave telescopes match those predicted by inflation.

4 Observing the Big Bang for Yourself Our Goal for Learning • Why is the darkness of the night sky evidence for the Big Bang? .17.

Why is the darkness of the night sky evidence for the Big Bang? .

stars would cover the night sky .Olbers’ Paradox If universe were 1) infinite 2) unchanging 3) everywhere the same Then.

Olbers’ Paradox If universe were 1) infinite 2) unchanging 3) everywhere the same Then. stars would cover the night sky .

Night sky is dark because the universe changes with time .

Night sky is dark because the universe changes with time .

which means we can see only a finite number of stars in the sky. unchanging. the sky would be everywhere as bright as the surface of the Sun. The Big Bang theory solves this paradox by telling us that the night sky is dark because the universe has a finite age.What have we learned? • Why is the darkness of the night sky evidence for the Big Bang? Olbers’ paradox tells us that if the universe were infinite. and it would not be dark at night. and filled with stars. .