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CHAPTER 4

REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH

GAMETE FORMATION

Types of reproduction
a) Sexual reproduction b) Asexual reproduction

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Ensure the survival of the species if the environment condition undergo changes constantly 5. involving sex cells or gamete 2. Gamete are formed by meiotic division 3. Involve two parents 4.SEXUAL REPRODUCTION 1. 6. New individuals inherit genes from both parents through the fusion of egg and sperm. Produce offspring that are genetically different from their parents .

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Is an advantage if the environment is stable. 5. Involves only one individual (single parent) 6.1. The process relies entirely on mitotic division ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION 3. Ensure that the adaptation of the parent for survival are passed down unchanged to the offspring. 2. 7. The production of new individuals without involving sex cells. New individual get their genes from one parent without the fusion of an egg and sperm . Produces offspring that are genetically identical to the 4.

Therefore need to produce new individual to replace those that die. They will eventually die. Reproduction is necessity to ensure: The continuation of the species The passing down of an individual’s genes to .The necessity for organisms to reproduce Organisms can not live forever.

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM .

the germinal epithelial cells and sertoli cells.MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM (spermatogenesis) Each testis The formation made up of of male gamete many small or sperm takes seminiferous place in the tubule. line the seminiferous tubules . testes Two types of cells.

Each primary spermatocytes undergoes meiosis I to form two haploid secondary spermatocytes Each secondary spermatocytes divides again during meiosis II to produce spermatids.Germinal epithelial cells of a seminiferous tubule divide by mitosis to produce diploid spermatogonia The spermatogonia grow to become primary spermatocytes which are large diploid sells. develop tails and mature into sperms (spermatozoa) through cell differentiation . This means a total of four spermatids are formed for every primary spermatocytes The spermatids obtain nourishment from nearby nutritive cells (sertoli cells).

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM .

Begins in the developing ovaries of a female fetus before birth. . Germinal epithelial cells near the surface of an ovary multiply by mitosis to form oogonia The diploid primary oocyte complete meiosis Ito form haploid cells which are not equal in size All primary oocytes undergo meiosis but stop at prophase I of meiosis I Oogonia grow to form primary oocytes and surrounded by a layer of follicle cells and secrete sex hormones to make up primary follicle.

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.The released or the secondary oocyte from the ovary is known as ovulation and it is take place in ovaries every 28 days Once a Graafian follicle has released a secondary oocyte. it develops into a yellowish mass of cells called the corpus luteum.

Prepare the body for the possibility of pregnancy The activities of the menstrual cycle are closely associate with ovulation and takes place in endometrium of the uterus within 28 days. .THE ROLE OF HORMONES IN HUMAN MENSTRUAL CYCLE Only occur in puberty female.

PROGESTERONE OESTROGEN •stimulates the developme nt of the follicle in the ovary •stimulates the developme nt of the follicles • stimulates the developme nt of the follicles • Maintain the endometri um in readiness for the implantati on of the blastosyst • thickening of the endometriu m • stimulates the repair and growth of the uterine lining • prepares the endometriu .Hormones involved in menstrual cycle a) The hormones that control the changes in the ovaries are FSH and LH FSH LH • stimulates the development of the follicle in the ovary • stimulates the development of the follicles b) The hormones that control the changes in the uterus are oestrogen and progesterone.

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but PMS is often linked to the changes in hormone levels that happen during a woman's menstrual cycle. PMS is not caused by stress or psychological problems. although these may make the symptoms worse.• No one know for sure what causes PMS or why some months are worse than others. .

Early development of a zygote in human .

When you have an ultrasound during this time. you can see the fetal heart pulsating.Eight Week Fetus All the major organs of your baby have formed now though they are not fully developed yet. . Eyes and ears are growing now. The heart is beating strongly.

Twelve Week Fetus

Your baby is now about 6.5 cm long and weighs about 18 grams. His head is becoming more rounded and the face is completely formed. Toes and fingers are formed and nails are beginning to grow. The baby is moving it's limps but you can not feel this movements yet.

It feels like there is a butterfly in your belly. However. kicking and moving about. If this is your first baby. you are likely to feel the first movements a bit later. It is exercising all his limbs. During a scan. . you can see the baby's head and body and you may see the baby moving. do not worry if you don't feel anything yet.Sixteen Week Fetus Your baby is now about 16 cm long and weighs 35 grams. This is the earliest stage at which you may feel the baby moving.

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. He is growing rapidly. You will probably notice that there are times when your baby seems to be asleep and other times when he's moving about a lot.Twenty Week Fetus The baby is still swimming around in a large amount of amniotic fluid. half as long as it will be at delivery and weighs about 340 grams. both in length and weight and is now 25 cm long. It makes some very active movements that can be felt by you.

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Your uterine muscle is stretching and you may feel a pain sometimes at the side of your tummy. . The top of your uterus reaches to just above your navel.Twenty Four Week Fetus Your baby is about 32 cm long now and weighs 500 grams. You can feel different parts of the baby's body through your abdominal wall.

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Thirty Week Fetus Your baby's head is now in proportion with the rest of his body.8 inches in length. Your baby's weight is now about 1700 grams or three pounds eleven ounces and measures about 40 cm or 15. stomach and intestines. You may feel pressure on your diaphragm. .

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Your baby is now about 50 cm long and weighs anywhere from 2500 to 4500 grams.Thirty Six Week Fetus Your baby is almost fully mature. Any time now he may descend into your pelvis. Once the baby has engaged you may find that your breathing becomes easier and the pressure on your diaphragm is less. . Your baby's skin is smooth now and his body has plumped out. When the baby is awake his eyes are open and he can differentiate between light and dark.

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others a bit later. much luck and happiness with the new baby in your life! . Some babies arrive a bit earlier. The due date is only a statistic means. Do not worry if your baby is not born exactly on his due date. Your baby's eyes will be blue at birth but this can change in the weeks to come. Your baby has lost his lanugos hair although you may still find some at his back and on his forehead. The long awaited day is near and soon you will be holding your baby in your arms. but they do arrive! So. Only 5 % of the babies are born exactly on their due dates.Thirty Seven Week Baby to Forty Two Week Baby Any day now your labor may start.

Contribution of science and technology to human reproduction Reproduction technology .

• Artificial insemination (AI) is a means of helping couples to have children if they are unable to conceive through sexual intercourse. Artificial insemination refers to a range of techniques in which the man's sperm is put into the woman's genital tract artificially. .

. although in reality it is usually a culture dish.hence the term "test tube baby". eggs are gathered from the woman's ovaries and mixed with the man's sperm in a dish in the laboratory. It refers to the glass container in the laboratory where fertilisation takes place . "In vitro" is a Latin term literally meaning "in glass".• In IVF.

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Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) • GONORRHEA .

ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROM (AIDS) .

stamens and carpel arranged in 4 consecutive rings or whorls. namely sepals. petals. structure of flower carpel . • There are 4 flower parts.Concept of sexual reproduction in flowering plants • Sexual reproduction in flowering plants (angiosperms) takes place in the distinctive reproduction structure called the flower.

• The outermost whorl is the calyx which consists of sepals. • Receptacle – is the part where the flower sit on • Pedicel-flower stalk • 2nd whorl  corolla : consists of petals • Male reproductive .

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Longitudinal section of a flower Pistil / carpel (female reproductive organ) (male reproductive organ) Anther Filament .

The Structure and Functions of Flowers The Female Reproductive Organ: The Carpel .

• In each pollen sacs.Development of pollen • Pollen is produce in the anther which consist of four pollen sacs. are hundred of pollen mother cells or microsporocyte .

Male Gametes .

each of these cells goes through two meiotic divisions. These cells are called microspores • Each one of these microspores eventually becomes a pollen grain. forming a tetrad. .Formation of pollen grain • The pollen mother cells (microsporocyte) divide by meiosis to produce 4 haploid cells called tetrad. • As the anther grows.

• The tube cell will build the pollen tube that grows from the stigma through the style to the ovule • The generative cell will divide mitotically to produce two sperm cells .

Development of the Embryo Sac .

divides by meiosis to form 4 haploid cells. • Eight haploid nuclei are now present. • The embryo sac. There is a small opening in the walls called a micropyle.Development of the Embryo Sac • The green structure at the top of the diagram is the ovule. The integuments are the 2 walls of the ovule. • Three of these cells degenerate and one remains. also known as the megaspore. Within the swollen „megaspore cell‟ six haploid cells and two „polar nuclei‟ are formed .

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The Carpel With a Mature Embryo Sac will appear as shown below: .

Pollination .

• When the pollen tube reaches the ovule. which become the seeds nutritive tissue . there is a double fertilisation by the sperm nuclei a) Fertilisation of the egg cell by a sperm cell yields the zygote. b) Fertilisation of the (n+n) cell produces the triploid endosperm.

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the ovary wall ripens and forms the pericarp of the fruit c) Ovule develops into seed. style and stigma degenerate and usually fall off b) The whole ovary changes into fruit.Double fertilisation in flowering plants a) The sepals. contains the zygote which develops into a “matured embryo” with cotyledons or „seed leaves‟. petals. The integuments of the ovule harden into seed coat .

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procambium. and ground meristem. . and ground tissues respectively. protoderm. which develop into dermal tissues. vascular tissues.Growth in multicellular organism • The apical meristem produces the three primary meristems.

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The growth curve • Growth may be evaluated by measurements of mass. length or height. surface area or volume .

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followed by a phase of logarithmic growth.SIGMOID GROWTH CURVE IN PINTO BEAN LEAVES Note that. followed by a stationary phase . as in bacterial growth. growth goes through an initial lag phase.

simply indicating that the growth rate reaches a maximum.The first derivative of the curve above. . and then tapers off.