MOTIVATION

THE CRITICAL QUESTION…

Is work supposed to be fun???

We spend 10-12 hours a day at work…..that’s equivalent to 1/3 -1/2 of our lives!

So if we are not having fun, we should at least make it worthwhile!!

From where comes the Fun?
Being satisfied  Getting our needs met  Doing something that turns pain to joy  Ease of accomplishing a difficult task  An experience that fulfills the senses  Enjoying the moment  Divine moments of sheer exhilaration!

We like to repeat things that are fun!
So..… Fun is fundamentally a motivating phenomena!

Management can influence employee motivation; however in the final analysis . . .

ALL MOTIVATION COMES FROM WITHIN THE INDIVIDUAL!

Defining Motivation:
* The driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfill some needs or expectation. * The degree to which an individual wants to choose in certain behavior.

Motivation is…
 Complex  Psychological  Unique

to each and every person  Context sensitive  Not fully understood

Qualities of Motivation:
Energizes

behavior Directs behavior Enable persistence towards a goal Exists in varying details

Motivation as a process:
ENERGY DIRECTION PERSISTENCE

It is a process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed and sustained towards attaining the goal.
*Energy- A measure of intensity or drive. *Direction- Towards organizational goal.
*Persistence- Exerting effort to achieve goal

Six C’s of Motivation..
Challenges Choices

Control

collaboration

Consequences

Constructing meaning

Basic model of motivation
Needs or expectations Result in Drive force (Behavior or Action)

To Achieve

Desired Goals
Feedback

fulfillments

Which Provides

Early Theories of Motivation:

Content Theories: Emphasis on what motivates.
  

Maslow’s need Hierarchy McGregor's Theories X & Y Herzberg’s two factors theory McClelland’s Theory of Needs

Early Theories of Motivation

The early theories may not stand the test of time, but they do form the basis for contemporary theories and are still used by practicing managers.

14

Process Theories of Motivation:

Emphasis on actual process of motivation.


  

Goal-setting Theory Reinforcement Theory Equity Theory Expectancy Theory

Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory
Needs were categorized as five levels of lower-higher-order needs. *Individual must satisfy lower-level needs before they can satisfy higher order needs. *Satisfied needs will no longer motivate. *Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that a person is on the hierarchy.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Based on following assumptions :


Unsatisfied need is a potential motivator of behavior Satisfied need is no longer a motivator Need satisfaction follows the order shown but is flexible

BUT…  Weak empirical support  Remains a classic interpretation of behavior  Human needs are arranged in a hierarchy, and must be satisfied in descending order.

Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs
Assumptions about high level and lower level needs:
1. Needs at a higher level evolved later in phylogeny. 2. Needs at a higher level are less important for survival

and less urgent to a person.
3. The satisfaction of higher level needs means more wishful and more positive results, which means greater happiness and a richer inner life.

Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow did not test these assumptions
empirically, and there have not been many

research psychologists interested in doing
so; this may have to do with the fact that Maslow‘s concepts are quite soft and resist operationalization.

McGregor’s Theory X and Y
Theory X Assume that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision. Theory Y Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire, responsibility, and like to work. Assumption Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relation.

‘Theory X’
management

‘Theory Y’

staff

staff
Theory X - authoritarian, repressive style. Tight control, no development. Produces limited, depressed culture. Theory Y - liberating and developmental. Control, achievement and continuous improvement achieved by enabling, empowering and giving responsibility.

staff

staff

management

Motivational Theories X & Y
SA Esteem
Theory Y - a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals motivated by higher order needs Theory X - a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals motivated by lower order needs

Social
Safety & Security Physiological

McClelland’s Need Theory/ Learned Needs Theory/ Acquired Needs Theory

According to McClellandThese motivators are learned (the Learned Needs Theory).  Regardless of our gender, culture, or age, we all have three motivating drivers, and one of these will be our dominant motivating driver,largely dependent on our culture and life experiences.

Need for Achievement
-Has a strong need to set and accomplish challenging goals. -Takes calculated risks to accomplish their goals. -Likes to receive regular feedback on their progress and achievements. -Often likes to work alone.

McClelland asserted via this experiment that while most people do not possess a strong achievement-based motivation, those who do, display a consistent behaviour in setting goals:

Volunteers were asked to throw rings over pegs rather like the fairground game; no distance was stipulated, and most people seemed to throw from arbitrary, random whom distances, McClelland sometimes suggested close, were sometimes strongly farther away. However a small group of volunteers, achievement-motivated, took some care to measure and test distances to produce an ideal challenge - not too easy, and not impossible.

Interestingly a parallel exists in biology, known as the 'overload principle', which is commonly applied to fitness and exercising, ie., in order to develop fitness and/or strength the exercise must be sufficiently demanding to increase existing levels, but not so demanding as to cause damage or strain. McClelland identified the same need for

a

'balanced

challenge'

in

the

approach

of

achievement-motivated people

Need for Power
- Wants to control and influence others. - Likes to win arguments. - Enjoys competition and winning. - Enjoys status and recognition.

Need for Affiliation
•Wants to belong to the group. •Wants to be liked, and will often go along with the rest of the group. •Favors collaboration over competition. •Doesn't like high risk or uncertainty.

Performance Predictions for High-nAch People

• People with a high need for achievement are likely to:
– Prefer to undertake activities with a 50/50 chance of success, avoiding very low- or high-risk situations – Be motivated in jobs that offer high degree of personal responsibility, feedback, and moderate risk – Not necessarily make good managers – too personal a focus. Most good general managers are NOT high on nAch – Need high level of nPow and low nAff for managerial success

• Good research support, but it is not a very practical theory

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Key Point: Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but separate constructs
Hygiene Factors
Company Policies Salary Work Conditions

Extrinsic and Related to Dissatisfaction

Motivators

Growth

Intrinsic and Related to Satisfaction

Responsibility

Achievement

Criticisms of Two-Factor Theory
Herzberg says that hygiene factors must be met to remove dissatisfaction. If motivators are given, then satisfaction can occur. -Herzberg is limited by his procedure  Participants had self-serving bias -Reliability of raters questioned  Bias or errors of observation -No overall measure of satisfaction was used Herzberg assumed, but didn’t research, a strong relationship between satisfaction and productivity

Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction
Traditional view
Satisfaction Dissatisfaction

Herzberg's view
Motivators Satisfaction Hygiene Factors No dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction No satisfaction

Alderfer’s ERG Theory
SA Esteem
Love (Social)

Growth
Relatedness

Safety & Security
Physiological

Existence

Alderfer’s ERG Theory

Existence

Growth

Relatedness

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Motivational Need Theories
Maslow
Self-actualization

Alderfer
Growth

McClelland
Need for Achievement Need for Power

Higher Esteem Order self interpersonal Needs
Belongingness (social & love) Relatedness

Need for Affiliation

Lower Order Needs

Safety & Security interpersonal physical

Physiological

Existence

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