Dairy Products


Dairy products are foods or drinks that are created from cow’s milk. However, they can also be produced using buffalo’s milk, goat’s milk, or even sheep’s milk.

Dairy products are often considered to be high in calcium and vitamins, and are a good source of energy.

Dairy Products

High in calcium and vitamins, and are a good source of energy. Highly perishable Store at 41°F (5°) or lower

Store separately from other food, especially those with strong odors.

List Of Dairy Products Milk powder Condensed milk .

Evaporated milk 3.5.Cultured butter milk 4.Baked milk .

6.Sour cream 7. Clotted cream .

Buttermilk Ghee .

Curd Whey .

Cottage cheese Cream cheese .

Other Dairy Products .

Milk  FORMS Whole liquid  Dry  Condensed  .

Milk. continued  Pasteurized – heated to destroy harmful bacteria  Homogenized – treated so that milk fat appears uniformly throughout the product .

body regulation Calcium .Growth.bones and teeth . prevents rickets Vitamin A .energy and warmth. prevents osteoporosis Phosphorus .bones and teeth.energy and warmth Fats . carries fat-soluble vitamins ADEK Vitamins .body building and repair Carbohydrates . Minerals .strong bones and teeth.Nutrients           Protein . prevents night blindness Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) .regulates production of energy from dietary fat.bones and teeth. prevents diseases Vitamin D . carbohydrates and protein.aids growth.

• Has no effect on nutritional value.  Homogenization – breaks up and disperses milk fat throughout the milk to prevent cream from rising to the top  .Processing Terms Pasteurization – heating raw milk at a high enough temperature for a sufficient time to remove pathogens (bacteria) and increase shelf life.

. stays fresher longer. has longer shelf life (up to 3 months) because milk is packaged in sterilized. air free packaging. UHT milk – heated to a higher temperature than pasteurized milk.

 Fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food .

.Why the Raw milk needs to be processed?  Pathogens come from the farm environment and may be present in raw milk. even from healthy cows due to poor sanitary conditions.

and Yersinia enterocolitica. Salmonella spp.The types of pathogens and their prevalence in raw milk  Brucella spp. Mycobacterium bovis and tuberculosis.. Escherichia coli O157:H7. Coliforms. . Coxiella burnetii. Listeria monocytogenes. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Campylobacter jejuni..

 .Milk and Probiotics live bacteria that provide a health benefit when consumed in adequate amounts.  Many probiotic bacteria are lactic acid bacteria. meaning that they use lactose as an energy source. and hence are associated with dairy products.

inflammatory bowel disease. and irritable bowel syndrome  .Probiotics improve the general health of the gastrointestinal tract  reduce the symptoms of lactose intolerance  help in the treatment of diarrhea.

 Probiotics also enhance the immune system and help reduce some allergic reactions .

Yogurt .

 .Yogurt is a dairy product .  Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid.  The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures".produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and its characteristic tang.

 In addition. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria.  .Microorganism involve in yogurt production Dairy yogurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. other lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are also sometimes added during or after culturing yogurt.

While yogurt typically has a pH low enough to offer some protection against the growth of harmful bacteria. bacteria and yeast can spoil yogurt during storage. .Spoilage of yogurt    Molds. The taste of spoiled yogurt is bitter and the smell is strong. spoilage organisms can still affect the quality of the product quickly and turn it into something unappealing to eat.

can boost immunity. . is a rich source of calcium.Nutritional facts about yogurt          Yogurt Yogurt Yogurt Yogurt Yogurt Yogurt Yogurt Yogurt Yogurt is easier to digest than milk. can lower cholesterol. . can decrease yeast infections. improves the bioavailability of other nutrients. aids healing after intestinal infections. is an excellent source of protein. contributes to colon health.

providing you with a good source of calcium. however. sugar-filled products little better for you than candy. Read yogurt labels carefully to choose the healthiest type. from heart-healthy to fatty. can contribute to problems such as weight gain. vitamin D and potassium. high cholesterol and heart disease. Picking any yogurt brand and eating it in excess. The many yogurt brands in your supermarket fall across the nutrition spectrum. protein. .Health concerns     Yogurt can be a staple in a healthy diet.

Cheese .

buffalo. Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk. textures. Cheese consists of proteins and fat from milk. usually the milk of cows. and forms. Cheese is produced in wide-ranging flavors. Lactococcus. .cremoris are most often use in cheese. goats.    Cheese is a group of milk-based food products.lactis.leuconostoc. depend on the type of cheese. or sheep.

Due to its reduced water content.Penicillum. This causes cheese to spoil much more slowly than other milk products. molds and bacteria. Mucor and other fungi also grow well on cottage cheese and impart stale or yeasty flavors. The most common bacterial spoilage is “slimy curd” caused by Alcaligenes spp.spoilage of cheese    Cheese is an important product of fermentative lactic acid bacteria. Cottage cheese can be spoiled by yeasts. and acidic pH. Particularly in the past. Consequently. cheese was valued for its long shelf life. bacterial growth is severely inhibited. .

Nutritional facts about cheese There is a very high concentration of essential nutrients in cheese including high quality proteins and calcium. vitamins.  .  Cheese contains substances called Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Sphingolipids that help prevent cancer.

It can also increase the risk of iron deficiency in children. Children with unidentified sensitivities to dairy products can even develop chronic ear problems and respiratory problems. allergies and digestive problems.Health Risks    Cheese and other dairy products may actually raise the risk of breast cancer. . Cheese can contribute to the development of colic.

Ice creams .

are available on the market. candies and syrups are optionally added into ice-cream for flavor enrichment. Fruits. . soft and hard. Two types of ice-cream. Products of dairy origin are the main ingredients of ice-cream. sugars. emulsifier and stabilizers.    Ice-cream represents a congealed dairy product produced by freezing a pasteurized mixture of milk. skimmed milk. nuts. cream. frozen cream. milk solids other than fat. These include whole milk. Other ingredients include flavoring matters and water. cream. condensed milk products and milk solid.

Ice Cream Manufacture         The basic steps in the manufacturing of ice cream are generally as follows: blending of the mix ingredients pasteurization homogenization aging the mix freezing packaging hardening .

the potential microbiological hazards found in the final products can still be introduced after pasteurization through adding contaminated ingredients and improper handling procedures.Microorganisms present in ice-cream    There are some steps in the production of icecream that can lead to the microbiological hazards. However. . Heat treatment by pasteurization can destroy most of the specific pathogens that pose risk to public health.

and Yersinia spp. Some pathogens that can survive in food even at low temperature include Salmonella spp. monocytogenes is of significant food safety concern worldwide . Listeria monocytogenes.  This is especially important in the preparation of soft ice-cream as its final stage of the production is carried out at point of sale. .. For ice-cream products. L. Campylobacter spp.

 A Source of Vitamins and Minerals  .Advantages & Disadvantages of Ice Cream to Human Health Ice cream is rich in carbohydrates. fats & proteins making it an energy-dense food.

the enzyme needed to digest lactose. a milk sugar. referred to as lactose-intolerant. are deficient in lactase. These individuals. and may experience digestive upset if they consume ice cream .Lactose Content  Ice cream may cause problems for certain people because it is dairy-based and contains lactose.

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